Digitized by the Internet Archive
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By OREN F. MORTON, B. Lit.
Under the Cottonwoods, " Winning or Losing?" Land
of the Laurel," "The Story of Daniel Boone," "A
Practical History of Music," "History of Pendle-
ton County, W. Va. ," "History of Preston
County, W. Va. ," "History of Monroe
County, W. Va.," "History of
Highland County, Virginia."
The McClure Co., Inc.
w< > :? ■«■■
By The McClure Co., Inc.
All Rights Reserved
1 . Geography of Bath 1
II. Discovery and Settlement 10
III. The Lewis Land Grant 22
IV. Areas of Settlement 36
V. The Mineral Springs 42
VI. Early Political History 51
VII. Roads and Road Builders 56
VIII. Life in the Pioneer Days 62
IX. Ten years of Indian Wars 79
X. The Point Pleasant Campaign 88
XI. Bath During the Revolution 94
XII. Selim the Algerine 101
XIII. Efforts Toward a New County 104
XIV. Organization of Bath 107
~ XV. The Surnames of Bath Ill
XVI. A List of Early Marriages 127
XVII. Seventy Years of Bath History 134
XVIII. Bath in the War of 1861 143
XIX. The Bath Squadron 146
XX. Roster of Confederate Soldiers 152
XXI. Cloverdale 162
XXII. The Calfpasture Valley 167
XXIII. The Bath of Today 172
XXIV. Alleghany County 176
XXV. The Families of Greater Bath 186
|ATH has a small number of people, and a considerable
share of this small number is a new element. To many
individuals of the latter class a history of the county will
appeal very little. And since the circulation of such a
book must necessarily be small, the price of a full and comprehensive
history would unavoidably be so high as to be prohibitive to persons
of small means. The choice before us was whether to bring out a
very small edition of a very high priced book, or a larger edition of a
comparatively low priced book. If the second choice were taken,
only a small volume was possible. And if the volume were to be
small, it was clearly out of the question to cover as much ground as is
attempted in a local history of comprehensive scope.
For the above reasons we confine ourselves to a presentation of
the more striking and important features in the story of this county.
But while this was the only course possible, we have sought to treat
these features with all the fullness the limits of the book would per-
mit. And since the present volume is a county history in a somewhat
abbreviated form, we entitle it "The Annals of Bath," rather than "A
History of Bath."
Owing to the necessary limitation in space, it has been impossible
to give genealogic records of the old families of the county. A partial
account is all the size of the book will permit. Yet this account
would cover more pages, if there had been a more general response to
our requests for information. What was not furnished to us we could
not put in, and we disclaim all responsibility for its non-appearance.
But if, in a commercial sense, this county seemed only a moderate-
ly promising field for a local history, it remains very true that Bath
is one of the best known counties of the Old Dominion. It is one of
the older counties in the Alleghany belt, and it lies on a natural high-
way of travel and commerce. The story of its evolution is one of much
The present work was begun in the fall of 1912. Joseph T. Mc-
Allister, of Hot Springs, had for a long while been collecting material
for a history of the county. But his favorable opinion of the author's
History of Highland County led him to invite the undersigned to his
home, so as to use his collection and write the history himself. The
original manuscript was completed the next July at the house of
George W. Wallace on the Cowpasture. Publication being much
delayed, and the author coming into possession of new and valuable
information, a new and enlarged manuscript has been prepared.
The question of writing a history of Alleghany County was dis-
cussed with several friends, and was decided to be unpromising in a
commercial aspect. But with a view of supplying the lack in a par-
tial way, a special chapter has been added to the new manuscript.
Illustrations were repeatedly solicited, and would have added to
the interest and attractiveness of the book. But as only one was
offered, it has been decided to issue the book without any. This
will explain the non-appearance of the cut spoken of on page 72.
The most sincere thanks of the author are extended to all persons
who have in any way contributed to the success of this enterprise. In
particular, he makes warm and grateful acknowledgment to Joseph
T. McAllister, George W. Wallace, and Houston H. Byrd for their
very substantial assistance, and to Boutwell Dunlap, of San Francis-
co, for valuable data relating to several of the early families. Mr.
Dunlap is not only a historian of repute, but is a descendant of Cap-
tain Alexander Dunlap, the earliest settler on the Calfpasture.
Oren F. Morton.
Staunton, Va., August 22, 1917.
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
GEOGRAPHY OF BATH
N ALL the states of the American Union there are but two
counties named Bath. One is in Virginia and the other
is in the daughter state of Kentucky. The older of
these came into actual existence May 1, 1791. It was
then larger than any present county in either of the Virginias. It is
still larger than the average of the 155 counties in the two states.
Until West Virginia became a fact, Bath lay near the center of
the Old Dominion. It now lies against the western border of the
parent state. Near its southwestern angle it is crossed by the thirty-
eighth parallel of north latitude and also by the third meridian west
from Washington. In outline the county is a fairly regular quadran-
gle, the four corners pointing very nearly north, east, south, and west.
Between the northern and southern corners the diagonal distance is
27 miles, and between the eastern and western corners the distance is
30 miles. The area is placed at 548 square miles, or 352,720 acres.
The airline distance from the county seat to the state capital is 135
miles, the direction being a little south of east. The city of Washing-
ton is 160 miles away, the direction being northeast.
The western boundary of Bath is the central ridge of the Appa-
lachians, sometimes called the Alleghany Front. It divides the wa-
ters coursing toward the Atlantic from those running toward the
Mississippi. This massive uplft is a natural boundary. On the
eastern side of the county, Walker's Mountain, Sideling Hill, and
Mill Mountain take turns in forming the border line. These three
elevations run almost precisely in the same direction. From the top
of Walter's Mountain the line leaps squarely across a very narrow-
valley to the top of Sideling Hill. Four miles southward it passes
with equal abruptness across a still narrower valley to the summit of
Mill Mountain. And yet this complex eastern border opens to the
base line only at the one point where Panther Gap provides an easy
passage for a railroad and an outlet for the waters of Mill Creek.
I ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
On the other hand the northern and southern county lines are entirely
artificial. Bath is simply a cross-section of the great valley which
extends nearly all the way from New River to the Potomac. The
bordering counties are Highland, Augusta, Rockbridge, Alleghany,
Greenbrier, and Pocahontas, the last two lying in West Virginia.
The Alleghany Front is lofty throughout, reaching in Paddy
Knob at the northern corner of Bath an altitude of 4500 feet. With-
in the county the most distinctive uplift is the divide running length-
wise through the center, separating Bath into two principal divisions.
For more than half the way this divide is Warm Springs Mountain,
which enters from the south and terminates near Burnsville. Jack
Mountain enters from the north and runs a little past the other ridge,
the distance from crest to crest being one mile. From Duncan's Knob,
Jack Mountain drops quite suddenly into the lower continuation
known as Wilson's Mountain. From the same knob a saddle reaches
across to Warm Springs Mountain and thus preserves a continuity of
watershed in the central divide. Near the center of the county Warm
Springs Mountain forks, the western and lower arm, known as Val-
ley Mountain, running nearly parallel with the eastern, at a distance
from summit to summit of two miles, and passing into Alleghany
county. The portion lying in Bath is pierced by no fewer than six
Midway between the Alleghany Front and the central divide
is a very conspicuous elevation, which to the north of the place where
it opens to give passage to Back Creek, is styled Back Creek Moun-
tain. Southward, it is known as Bollar Mountain. Westward of
this ridge is Little Mountain, separating the valley of Little Back
Creek from that of Back Creek proper. Eastward are Rocky Ridge,
Warwick's Mountain, and Callison Ridge. A little east of Warm
Springs Mountain is Tower Hill, a continuation of the Bullpasture
Mountain of Highland. From the Bullpasture gap on the county
line it runs 10 miles southward to a bend in Dry Run. Southward
from Thompson's Creek to the line of Alleghany County, the space
for five miles east of the crest of Warm Springs Mountain is
crowded with a succession of much lower uplifts. Beard's Moun-
tain, the outermost and highest of these, lies in the same axis with
Shenandoah Mountain, though separated from it by a long depres-
sion. Shenandoah Mountain, after holding for 60 miles an imposing
GEOGRAPHY OF BATH j
height and breadth, breaks down very abruptly after penetrating
Bath only six miles. The Sister Knobs mark the forked southern end.
Southward are hill-ridges walling in the basin of Stuart's Creek.
Near Millboro Springs begins the higher and ragged uplift of Rough
Mountain, which terminates all at once in Griffith Knob at a bend
of the Cowpasture on the Alleghany line.
Bath is in fact mainly occupied with mountain ridges, which
vary a good deal in heighth, length and contour. To a person follow-
ing any of the larger watercourses, the river-valley often appears nar-
rower than is truly the case, because of foothill ridges rising sharply
from the edge of the bottom land. Sometimes, as on the upper Cow-
pasture, these heavy bluffs present toward the river abrupt faces of dry,
slaty soil, supporting a thin growth of small pines and a little hard-
As is generally the case in Appalachian America, the mountains
of Bath occur in long ridges and present outlines of much grace and
symmetry. This is particularly true of Walker's Mountain, the
skyline of which is almost as horizontal as a house roof. Rough
Mountain is quite exceptional in this respect.
The tendency of the Appalachian ridges to run out, or to be in-
terrupted by watergaps, is of much practical importance. Routes of
travel were thereby suggested to the white pioneers and to the In-
dians before them. The breaking down of Shenandoah Mountain
offers a line of easy approach from the Valley of Virginia to the Cow-
pasture at Fort Lewis. Panther Gap and the pass at Griffith Knob
presented lines of approach to the settlers who occupied Stuart's
Creek and the lower Cowpasture. From the Cowpasture, Thomp-
son's Creek opens a way through a succession of minor ridges to the
very foot of Warm Springs Mountain. A depression in the skyline
of the latter indicated to the early comers the most advantageous place
for crossing that barrier. Then again, the gaps in Valley Mountain
offered a choice of routes into the lower lying valley of Jackson's
River. In short, physical geography has placed Bath on a through
line of travel between the East and the West.
The uplift in the center of the county divides Bath into the two
main valleys of Jackson's River and the Cowpasture. The more im-
portant sub-valleys of the western division are Warm Springs valley
and the valleys of Big and Little Back Creeks. Those of the eastern
4 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
division are Dry Run, Stuart's Creek, Porter's Mill Creek, and
Padd's Creek. In addition to these is the basin of Mill Creek, which
drains into the Calfpasture and not into the Cowpasture.
Jackson's River has a course of some 20 miles before touching
Bath, and enters this county as a considerable stream. Within Bath
it is swollen by Muddy Run, Chimney Run, Warm Springs Run, and
Cedar Creek, but most of all by Back Creek. To the point of junc-
tion, Back Creek has pursued quite as long a course as the main
stream itself but through a narrower valley.
A half mile south of the Highland boundary the Cowpasture is
joined by the Bullpasture, which is the longer and larger of the two
streams, and is even larger than Jackson's River at the county line.
The united waters also pursue a longer course within the confines of
Bath. But after passing into Alleghany, and at length reaching the
point a little below Clifton Forge where it is joined by the Cowpas-
ture, Jackson's River gains upon its companion both in length and
volume. It is therefore regarded as the head branch of the James,
which is the title the waters assume below the confluence. In colonial
days this section of the James was known as the Fluvanna. The
chief tributaries of the Cowpasture are the five mentioned in a preced-
ing paragraph. None of these, except Stuart's Creek, is ordinarily of
much size. Dry Run is so named because in its lower course there is
no visible water except in a wet season.
The running waters of Bath are nearly always rapid as well as
clear. In the sandstone areas are excellent springs of cool freestone
water. The caverns which underlie the limestone belts attract the
rainfall into underground channels. Near the base level of the val-
leys in which these belts occur, the waters reappear as powerful, never-
failing springs. Except in times of flood, fordable places occur in all
the rivers, although bridges sometimes obviate the need of taking the
Rock formations are called stratified, when they are due to the
marl, sand, clay, or gravel which has been deposited by water, es-
pecially that of tidal streams. Because of the pressure of newer de-
posits above, these soft materials finally solidify into hard rock. The
internal heat of the earth assists in this process, and when intense it
works a change in structure, causing the rock to be of the kind known
as metamorphic. Of this latter nature is the flinty sandstone, layers
GEOGRAPHY OF BATH 5
of which, bent into an almost vertical position, may be seen in some
of the watergaps. The stratified rocks of Bath are among the oldest
known to geology. On the eastern and western borders they are of
the Devonian series. There are also small areas of these in the in-
tervening ridges. Elsewhere, the greater portion of the county is
covered by the older Silurian series. Older yet is the narrow rim of
Ordovician rocks in the Warm Springs valley. This rim incloses a
large, oval-shaped area of the yet older Cambro-Ordovician rocks.
Since all these formations are older than the Carboniferous beds, it
is scarcely worth while to look for coal, unless on the extreme western
border. But the deposits of iron ore and building stones are of much
extent and value, although as yet undeveloped. There is also some
Layers of hard sandstone form the cores of the steeper ridges and
tell us why these mountains exist. They protect the adjacent softer
layers, which are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is mainly in
the valleys and on the broad-topped elevations that we find the flaky
slates and the limestones. The former blister from the action of
frost and sun. The latter dissolve under the honeycombing effect of
rainwater charged with carbonic and vegetable acids. Caverns, which
are underground waterways, are thus eaten into the limestone beds,
the presence of which is shown by the sinkholes on the surface above.
But the limestone areas in Bath are not extensive. They occur chief-
ly in the Warm Springs valley and around Burnsville. Shale, more
commonly termed slate, is a characteristic feature of the sterile bluffs
which sometimes hem in the fertile bottoms of alluvial origin.
The soils of Bath differ very much in quality. First in value is
the deep, dark loam of the river bottoms. The soil of the limestone
belts is likewise superor and is particularly suited to grass. Much of
the upland soil elsewhere is light in color and sandy in texture. Tight
or loose stones, sometimes waterworn, occur everywhere, but in vary-
ing frequency. It is only the bottoms, the bench lands, and limited
portions of the higher levels that have been in demand for tillage. A
belt of bench and bottom is sometimes a mile from side to side. Yet
such a strip is not continuous, bold heights sometimes coming close
to the river on either side, as in the case of Jackson's River above
Fort Dinwiddie. Furthermore, the bottoms are confined to the two
rivers and the lower courses of their larger affluents.
6 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
With respect to the climate, Bath is highly favored. The ele-
vation gives it a more temperate air than is found in the same latitude
on the Atlantic or the plains of the West. The Alleghany Front
breaks the force of the northwesters that have such free play through-
out the Mississippi basin. It also causes a lower degree of humidity
on the eastern side than on the western. Shenandoah Mountain
scatters the east wind that is so trying along the seacoast. Bath has
not the damp air that one would expect in a mountain region. It has
not the close summer atmosphere and the winter keenness of the sea-
shore, nor the accentuated extremes of heat and cold that are a well
known feature of the Western climate. The air movement is less
than in either of the other sections, high winds being rare. The win-
ters are not usually of a severe type, the summers and falls are par-
ticularly delightful, and the air is pure, healthful and invigorating.
There is, in fact, a fine climate at all seasons.
To be more precise, the climate of Warm Springs valley, with its
altitude of 2200 feet, is but slightly below the average for the county.
In this locality the mean temperatures for winter, spring, summer,
and fall are 31, 51, 69, and 53 degrees. The yearly average, which
is 51 degrees, is about the same as at Harrisburg in Pennsylvania, or
Lincoln in Nebraska, although the climate of this valley is more reg-
ular than that of the other places. The yearly rainfall is 42 inches,
including the snow, which in an unmelted form amounts to 26
inches. Along the two rivers, especally the Cowpasture, the climate
is perceptibly warmer, the altitudes being less by from 500 to 1000
In the old-time solitudes of Bath there was a great deal of animal
life. The buffalo and the elk have been gone much more than a cen-
tury. The wolf, once a great scourge to the young livestock, is
locally extinct, thanks to the large bounty that was maintained so
long as he was here. The name of Panther Gap keeps us from for-
getting that the puma, called "painter" by the pioneer, was once a
co-tenant with the wolf. The fox and the wildcat, and an occasion-
al black bear still linger, and now and then an eagle disports himself
in the air. A very few deer remain in the more extensive woodlands.
jret even the gray squirrel and cottontail are now comparative rare.
Other small mammals are the raccoon, the opossum, the woodchuck,
the ^kunk, the muskrat, the chipmunk, and the bat. Turkeys, pheas-
GEOGRAPHY OF BATH /
ants, quails, and other game birds are now rather few, and the small
migrants that appear in the spring are not so numerous as the true
interests of the farmer demand. Rattlesnakes and copperheads are
few, unless in their regular haunts. The clear streams contain some
trout, bass, perch, suckers, and eels. The former abundance of wild
game is reflected in the following rhyme, written of William Wilson
of Bolar Run:
Old Wilson could sit at his door,
And count buffalo, elk, and deer by the score.
As is true in all Appalachia, the hills and valleys of Bath take
naturally to a forest covering. The deciduous trees, such as maples,
chestnuts, hickories, sycamores, willows, and oaks, heavily prepon-
derate. Small pines cling to the dry soil of certain river-hills. The
larger specimens on the mountain sides are mostly killed about fifteen
years before the date of this book, by an insect pest, but many of
their barkless trunks are yet standing. A varied undergrowth of
shrubs and small trees is now more in evidence than in the time of
the pioneer. Some of the more conspicuous wild fruits are the black-
berry, the huckleberry, the teaberry, and the common and mountain
raspberries. The wild grapevine grows to large dimensions.
Outside of the bottoms and the small lime stone area, the soils
of Bath are not so favorable to making a good grass sod as in the more
elevated county of Highland. Hence tillage farming is more con-
spicuous than there. The leading field crops are corn, grain, and hay,
and large yields are obtained on the bottoms. The Fort Lewis farm
has produced 2340 bushels of wheat in a single season. Orchard
fruits, particularly apples, have always been grown for home use, but
only of late has there been much attention to the producing of either
large or small fruits on a commercial scale. The county is well suit-
ed to this branch of agriculture. An apple tree just over the High-
land line was set out in 1765 by William Wilson, and in 1908 was
still yielding 35 bushels of good spitzenbergs.
The scenic beauty of Appalachia is at once recognized by the
observant traveler. There is an absence of monotony, because the
prospect distinctly varies from mile to mile. When the woods are in
summer foliage, the contour of the numerous ridges assumes the most
graceful appearance. The emerald verdure of the meadows and
8 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
pastures then renders the open ground more pleasing to the eye than
in regions where grass is not spontaneous.
The view from Flag Rock, on the crest-line of Warm Springs
Mountain, can scarcely be surpassed with respect to scenic loveliness
and interest. Looking southeastward, the eye passes over the succes-
sion of comparatively low ridges on the nearer side of the Cowpas-
ture. Turning nearly to the east one gazes through a low gap into
the valley of Thompson's Creek, and has distant glimpses of the
Millboro turnpike among the fields around Fairview and Bath Alum.
Beyond the winding course of the unseen Cowpasture there comes
into view, for its entire length, the irregular summit and fluted
slope of Rough Mountain. Beyond is the far smoother outline of
Mill Mountain. Still further beyond, and of a pearly hue from the
effect of distance, are the two House Mountains toward Lexington.
Their short, straight summits and their abrupt endings loom well
above the deeper-hued crest-level of the prominence in front. Yet
the final sky-line in the east is not reached until one makes out the pal<*
Blue Ridge, 40 miles away, and dominated by the towering Peaks
of Otter. Looking more nearly east, and in a line with the view
down Thompson's Creek, the observer peers into the deep notch of
Panther Gap. In front of and to the right of this opening are the two
uplifts on either side of Stuart's Creek. Beyond is Sideling Hill and
then comes the remarkable horizontal crest of Walker's Mountain.
A dozen miles awav in the northeast are the Sister Knobs, marking
the south end of Shenandoah Mountain and standing like sentinels
above the low expanse in front. Tn the same direction, but at more
than twice the distance, is Elliott's Knob, one of the loftiest peaks in
Virginia. Turning about and facing the point of sunset, we behold
another rapid alternation of forested heights, the Alleghany Front
occupying the horizon. In the foreground is an exquisite panorama
of Warm Springs valley, which lies a thousand feet below. Whether
one is looking eastward or westward, mountain rises behind mountain
at intervals that are seeminglv short. Because these heights are for-
est-clad, and thus screen the open lands between them, the outlook is
almost as primeval to us as it was to the pathfinder of nearly two
centuries ago. And when the whole prospect is bathed in the clear,
bright atmosphere of a Virginia sky, the picture receives a touch of
GEOGRAPHY OF BATH 9
Among the natural curiosities of Bath is Ebbing Spring, three
miles south of Williamsville. Intermittent springs are usually quite
regular as to ebb and flow. But this one is so abnormal that the
McClintic family, whose mansion lies within a few rods, have never
been so fortunate as to see the waters at the exact moment of high
tide. The rush comes with a considerable noise, yet during the times
of ebb there is still considerable outflow. The stream once ran a mill,
and so important was then the period of high water that when it
came in the night, the miller would get up and set his burrs in mo-
tion. Two miles north is Meadow Lake, covering more than an acre
of the Cowpasture bottom. It is fed by a powerful spring, and is the
source of Spring Branch, which is capable of turning a very large over-
shot wheel. It is thought that the spring is simply a reappearance of
Cowpasture waters. At all events, the Cowpasture at ordinary stages
is nearly dry for several miles above the mouth of the Bullpasture.
Near Wallawhatoola Spring the Cowpasture seems again to lose a
share of its visible volume, recovering it in a large spring near Nim-
In a bluff on this river, near Windy Cove church, is Blowing
Cave, mentioned in Jefferson's Notes on Virginia. The cavern
has been explored a considerable distance and seems to have a second
opening. There is a strong outward draft in hot weather and a
strong inward draft in cold weather. The explanation is simple.
Any deep cave has a uniform temperature the year round. This
temperature is practically the same as the yearly average of the sur-
face above. Such a cave in Bath would have a constant temperature,
day and night, winter and summer, of from 50 to 52 degrees. So
when the outer air is warmer than that of the cave, the heavy cold
air rushes out, giving place to an equal weight of the lighter warm
air. In winter the outer air is the colder, and it displaces the warm-
er air within.
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT
T IS an established fact that in 1671 a party sent out
from Fort Henry — now Petersburg — penetrated to the
Falls of New River and found on the way several letters
cut into the bark of the trees. These markings were
by still earlier prospectors of whom nothing else is known. But the
journal kept by this party, and the journal written about the same
time by John Lederer, were scarcely supplemented during the next
half century by any further authentic information as to the country
west of the Blue Ridge. That mountain barrier presents from the
east a rather rugged and lofty outline. It was thought impassible.
The country on the farther side was uninhabited by Indians and was
believed to be very uninviting.
During the first century after the settlement at Jamestown, the
eight original counties grew into 25, yet they were tenanted by only a
fifth of the half million inhabitants of the English colonies in America.
In Virginia the area of actual settlement had not spread two-thirds of
the way from the Atlantic coast to the Blue Ridge.
In 1716 the governor of Virginia was Alexander Spottswood, a
man of energy and foresight. He believed in making good the claim of
the British to the region beyond the mountains. Geographical knowl-
edge concerning the interior of the American continent was very fog-
gy, and the governor believed the Blue Ridge to lie much nearer the
Great Lakes than is really the case. He wished to find a way to
those lakes, so that forts might be established on them, these forts
to be linked with the coast settlements by a line of fortified stations.
He thus thought the French on the St. Lawrence might be checkmated
in their ambition to occupy the region south of the lakes.
So the governor headed a party of exploration. The start was
from Williamsburg, then the capital of Virginia. Above Fredericks-
burg there was no road. The Blue Ridge was crossed through or
near Swift Run Gap, and near where Flkton now stands the South
Fork of the Shenandoah was reached. It was named the Euphrates
and was thought to flow into the Great Lakes. On the west bank
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 11
Spottswood and his gay companions uncorked the large variety of
liquors they had brought along and indulged in a grand spree. Prob-
ably not enough firewater remained for a second big drunk, and the
"gentlemen" of the party seem to have been in no mood for farther
adventure. But the rangers who had guided Spottswood were left
behind to continue the exploration.
The governor did not half accomplish his declared purpose, and
yet his trip w r as of much significance. The lowlands of the Valley
of Virginia were found to be a grassy prairie with a soil more fertile
than that of the tidewater region. No Indians were living here and
the country was stocked with game. The land beyond the Blue Ridge
was now officially discovered, and the news was published on both sides
of the Atlantic. Exploration in detail now went forward with some
Yet the new region would not have been occupied very soon, — in
fact, not for a long while,- — had it waited on the advance of settle-
ment from Tidewater Virginia. That district was a land of tobacco
plantations. Nearly every estate was within easy reach of some river
always navigable by seagoing vessels. The planter had no wish to
make a new home 150 miles beyond the heads of navigation. The im-
migration from Britain was no longer large, and the district east of
the Blue Ridge was by no means fully occupied.
About 1725 there set in a new and very large stream of American
immigration. It came from the north of Ireland and the valley of
the upper Rhine. Nearly all these people landed at Philadelphia, be-
cause the Pennsylvania government had in Europe the reputation of
being more liberal than in the case of the other colonies. But the
Germans were scarcely represented at all among the earlier settlers of
A little more than a century before Spottswood's trip the prov-
ince of Ulster in the north of Ireland had been conquered and almost
depopulated. The British government confiscated several million
acres of its lands and colonized them with people from the southwest
of Scotland and the north of England. Among them were many of the
Highland Scotch and a few Huguenots from France. The settlers
were plain, hardv, and industrious, and they soon redeemed Ulster
from its sorry appearance at the close of the conquest. Yet with
the exception of a few breathing spells, there was a nagging persecu-
12 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
tion of the Ulster people. This persecution was partly religious and
partly industrial, and did not cease until 1782. The spirit of that age
was very intolerant. It had not yet outgrown the opinion that a state
should permit no difference in church organization within its confines.
The immigrants were Presbyterians, while the native Irish were Cath-
olics. England placed under civil disabilities those who did not ad-
here to the Church of England. The Presbyterian ministers were not
permitted to perform the marriage ceremony, and at times their con-
gregations could not meet in public. The industrial persecution was
because of the thrift and industry of the Ulster people. Vexatious re-
strictions were thrown upon their manufactures with a view to strang-
ling the competition from them.
To get away from this harsh and illiberal treatment the people of
Ulster began flocking to America. Here they were called Irish. The
term Scotch-Irish is of recent coinage and is inexact. They were a
blend of Scotch, English, Celtic Irish, and French Hugenots, the first
element being the largest. In the settled southeast corner of Penn-
sylvania there was little room or welcome for the strangers. They
were therefore constrained to press inland, and in doing so they
pushed westward the colonial frontier. Within fifty years
the Ulster people and the colonial Americans who joined them had
occupied a broad belt of mountain and piedmont country extending
from New York to Georgia. They made good pioneers, because they
were a resolute folk, accustomed to a simple life. They took kindly
to the mountains for the reason that they came from a country of hills.
They were overcomers by nature, and in Appalachian America they
proceeded to subdue the forest, the beasts of prey, the Indians, the
French, and the British.
The Blue Ridge is nearer the seaboard in Pennsylvania than in
Virginia. The broad Cumberland Valley is but a continuation of the
Valley of Virginia. Nature, aided by Indian paths, had thus provided
an easy line of travel to the South. Many of the immigrants poured
into the hitherto uninhabited district made known by Spottswood.
They reached Virginia by a side entrance, and without coming into
close touch with the people of Tidewater, who were almost wholly of
Between the two sections of Virginia sundered by the natural
boundary of the Blue Ridge, there has remained since the dawn of set-
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 13
tlement a very perceptible difference. Their populations are of di-
verse origin, and consequently their manners and customs have never
been the same. Nevertheless, the laws and institutions of the colony
began at once to exert a unifying influence.
We are now brought to the threshold of the settlement of Bath.
Eleven years after Spottswood's revel on the bank of South River, we
find a petition to the governor and council that speaks of the Cow-
pasture bv its present name. The signers were Beveriv Robinson,
Robert Brooke, William Lynn, and Robert and William Lewis.
These men were not themselves explorers, but were influential planters
of Tidewater. The two Lewises were not of the family that became
so conspicuous in the annals of Augusta and her daughter counties.
John, the father of the Lewises of Augusta, had not yet come from
Ireland. But William Lynn was his brother-in-law. The paper is
dated in 1727 and reads as follows:
"Your Petitioners have been at great Trouble and Charges in making
Discoveries of Lands among the Mountains, and are desirous of taking up
some of these Lands they have discovered; whereupon your petitioners hum-
bly pray your Honours to grant him an order to take up Fifty Thousand
Acres in one or more tracts of the head branches of James River to the
West and Northwestward of the Cow Pasture, on seating thereon one fam-
ily for every Thousand Acres, and as the said Lands are very remote and
lying among the great North Mountains, being about Two Hundred Miles
at least from any landing — Your Petitioners humbly pray Your Honours
will grant them six years time to seat the same."
The above petition does not seem to have been acted upon. But
an attempt to colonize the valleys of Bath even before there was a
settler at Staunton or within 30 miles of it looks rather curious. How-
ever, it must be remembered that the Ulstermen were not used to the
sight of wild land uncovered with wood. The prairies of the Shen-
andoah were not so inviting to them as we might suppose. A tract of
good soil might not have a spring because of the limestone formation.
Some of the best lands of the Valley are not among the first that were
reduced to private ownership.
How the Calfpasture, Cowpasture, and Bullpasture rivers came
to acquire such unusual names is not clearly known. The legend that
some early hunters killed a buffalo calf on the first stream, a cow on
the second, and a bull on the third is too much of the nature of stor-
ies that are told to children, and has the earmark of being an after-
14 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
thought. There is good evidence that in all these valleys there was
much open land. This was covered with grass and attracted the buf-
falo, an animal that does not live in the woods. These natural pas-
tures had been created by the Indians, and were perpetuated by burn-
ing the grass at the close of each hunting season. Thus the valleys
watered by the three streams came to be known as "the Pastures."
The names the rivers now bear were first applied to the valleys and
not to the streams. The colonial deeds relating to the most eastern
of the pastures speak uniformly of "the Great River of the Calf Pas-
ture" and "the Little River of the Calf Pasture." The Cowpasture
river in 1743 was better known as Clover Creek, and until 1760 the
Bullpasture was generally called Newfoundland Creek. For some
years the valley of the Bullpasture was more generally called the "New
Found Land," probably because it is so walled in by mountains that
it may not have been found for several years after the main Cowpas-
ture was explored.
The red men called the Cowpasture the Walatoola (Wah-lah-
too-lah). This musical name was corrupted by the white people into
Wallawhatoola, which now survives only as the designation of an
alum spring above Nimrod Hall. It has been supposed to mean "the
river that bends," or "winding river," and such a meaning is indeed
very appropriate to so crooked a river as the Cowpasture. But the
real meaning is "fine white cedar." The only other stream in this re-
gion, of which the Indian name does not seem to be totally lost, is
Dunlap Creek. The natives called it the Escataba, meaning "wild
Speaking of the Indian place-names, the authors of the "Heart of
the Alleghanies" makes this very just observation: "There is a mean-
ing in their euphony, and a suggestiveness in their melody. It is a
grievous fault, the more grievous because irreparable, that so many of
the bold streams which thunder down forest slopes and through echo-
ing canyons have lost those designations whose syllables glide from the
tongue in harmony with the music of the crystal currents."
In the summer of 1732 John Lewis settled a mile north from where
Staunton soon arose. He was a person of means and leadership and
was accompanied by about 30 of his Ulster followers. A more prom-
inent comer was James Patton, who was unwearied in soliciting im-
migration to the Augusta colony. By the end of a dozen years there
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 15
were several hundred Ulster families scattered over the present coun-
ties of Augusta, Rockingham, and Rockbridge, and even into the Val-
ley counties lying nearer the Tennessee line.
The first county to include any portion of the Valley of Virginia
was Spottsylvania, organized in 1720. It took in only that small
strip lying wholly east of South River and between lines meeting it a
little below Port Republic and a little above Front Royal. In 1734,
Orange was carved out of Spottsylvania. It was defined, however,
as covering the entire region west of the Blue Ridge, so far as it lay
within the boundaries claimed by Virginia. So when John Lewis ap-
peared in the vicinty of Staunton, he had come to a "no man's land."
In 1738 that portion of Orange west of the Blue Ridge was divid-
ed into the counties of Frederick and Augusta by a line running from
where is now the northwest corner of Greene County, to the Fairfax
Stone at the southern extremity of the western line of Maryland. But
until there should be more settlers west of the mountains, the two new
counties were left under the jurisdiction of Orange. It was not until
December, 1745, that Augusta was organized. It is for this reason
that the early records of Orange have something to do with the district
west of Shenandoah Mountain. When it was set off, Augusta con-
tained about 4000 people, but they were scattered over a wide area.
Lewis and his companions were regarded as squatters on the pub-
lic domain. To make them feel the authority of the state, two im-
mense tracts of choice land were given to William Beverly and Ben-
jamin Borden. The grant of 118,491 acres to Beverly lay around
Staunton. It was known as Beverly Manor and also as Irish Tract.
Lewis was of middle age when he came to Virginia. His sons,
Thomas, Andrew, and William were then minors but became more
prominent than himself. Thomas was the first county surveyor of
Augusta. Andrew assisted in surveying and both brothers were very
energetic as land prospectors.
Under the date of October 29, 1743, an order of council for 30,-
000 acres was issued in favor of James and Henry Robinson, James
Wood, and Thomas and Andrew Lewis. The grant was located in
the basin of the James River above the mouth of the Cowpasture.
Thomas and Andrew Lewis, now 25 and 23 years old, seem to have
been the only active members of the syndicate, although Wood, of
Frederick County, was also a surveyor. The Robinsons were aristo-
16 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
crats of Tidewater and their names were enough to give prestige to
If, as is probable, no settlers had appeared in the Bath area before
1743, this will explain why the surveying did not begin in earnest un-
til nearly two years had elapsed. September 26, 1745*, the Lewises ap-
peared on the Cowpasture, just above Nimrod Hall, and surveyed 1080
acres for Adam Dickenson. This tract was the most northern in a
chain of four. During the next two days the others were run off for
Alexander Millroy, John Donally, and Hugh Coffey. The fourth
day was Sunday, and after the manner of good Presbyterians the sur-
veyors reported no work. During the first half of the following week
they were moving northward, adding seven more links to the chain.
These surveys were in favor of James Waddell, Ralph Laverty, James
Stuart, James McCay, John Mitchell, John Cartmill, and James
Hughart. Those of Stuart, McCay, and Mitchell were on Stuart's
The last day in March, 1746, the date falling on Monday, the sur-
veyors returned to the Cowpasture, and below Coffey they laid off
parcels for Joseph Watson, Andrew Muldrock, and William Daugh-
erty. On the first of "Aprile," they continued down the river to
the vicinity of Griffith Knob, surveying for John Walker, James
Mayse, and Robert Crockett. Meanwhile a detachment of the sur-
veying party w T as at work far above, laying off selections for James
Scott, John McCreery, William Gillespie, William Lewis, James
Jackson, James Simpson, William Black, Robert Abercrombie, Thomas
Gillespie, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Hugh Edwards, William Warwick,
and James Hall. The surveys already mentioned took in nearly all the
choice morsels of Cowpasture bottom that lie within the present lim-
its of Bath and also the more desirable land on Stuart's Creek.
During the last week in April the surveyors were busy on Jackson's
River. Their largest tract was for William Jackson. Immediately
•According to the Old Style Calendar, which was 11 days behind the true
time. The correct date is therefore October 7. The New Style calendar,
was put into force in 1752. To correct the error, 11 days were taken out of
ihe September of that year. Until then, the English began the new year
with March 25. For example, all dates in 1746 coming prior to March 25
were counted as belonging to 1745, but were often written as in this illustra-
tion: March 1, 1745-6.
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 17
below was a second large tract for Adam Dickenson, who took a
third a little lower down. The lands of James Ewing, William
Jameson, and Archibald Elliott were still farther below.
The surveying continued at intervals until October 4. Mean-
while the Lewises did not fail to look out for Number One. The
Fort Lewis survey of 950 acres was run off September 5 in the name
of John Lewis. William Lewis took a tract immediately below Bull-
pasture Gap. Thomas Lewis took two tracts on Jackson's River, at
and just below the Highland line, and four on Back Creek. Of the
long list of surveys four remained for a while in the hands of the
It is not to be assumed that every given acreage, as put down in
the suryevor's book, is very close to the actual amount. The Lewises
understood how to survey, but their work was done too rapidly for
precise results. The wilderness was broad and the methods they
used were slapdash. The length of a course was sometimes paced
off or guessed at. An open line was occasionally drawn. But it is
significant that in nearly or quite every instance the true area is found
to overrun the surveyor's figure, sometimes to a very considerable
extent. The loose way in which the courses were often run appears
in the frequency with which the phrase, "containing by estimation,"
occurs in the deeds based on these surveys.
In the surveys not held until a purchaser should appear, the sur-
veyor entered this clause in his report: "Now in possession of
." This does not necessarily imply that the
person named was already living on his land. Millroy, Coffey, and
Daugherty are indeed mentioned as having houses on their selections.
The same was doubtless true of several other settlers. But in some
instances the expression means no more than that purchase had been
made. Several claimants lived on the Beverly or Borden grants,
and not here. Sometimes an actual settler would take a second and
perhaps a third tract, possibly at a considerable distance from his
On Jackson's River, and within the Bath area*, it is doubtful
*By "Bath area," we mean Bath County within its present lines, just as
if these limits had always existed. By "Greater Bath," whenever the term is
used in this book, we mean Bath as it stood from 1790 to 1822.
18 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
whether there was any settler as early as 1746, unless it were William
How long had the settlers been on their lands? Dickenson, the
foremost man in the Cowpasture settlement, calls himself a resident of
Maryland in 1742. As to the other settlers, there is no evidence that
any of them came sooner than 1744. Carpenter, Mayse, and Wright
did not appear until 1746. Had the settlements generally been prior to
1745, the surveyors would have come sooner than they did. In his list
of surveys in Augusta between the dates, January 29 and June 15,
1745, Thomas Lewis mentions none west of Shenandoah Mountain.
Again, if there had been settlers here for some length of time, the
court records should disclose some indication of the fact. The first
constable for the Cowpasture was James Mayse, appointed in Febru-
ary, 1745. And as the head tax was closely looked after, the pioneers
could not have escaped the attention of the county court. The first
recognition by that body of tithables beyond Shenandoah Mountain
occurs May 23, 1745. The justices of Orange, in describing precincts
to the various tithe-takers, then instruct John Lewis to list "all the
Inhabitants of the Cow and Calf Pastures and the Settlers back of
the same." The expression, "back of the same," is not quite conclu-
sive that any man had as yet located beyond Warm Springs Mountain.
It seems worded to cover a possible and perhaps probable contingency.
Once again, the muster rolls of the militia for 1742 do not include the
names that were soon to appear in the region covered by the Lewis
The county surveyor did not come again for four years. In 1750
and 1751 he surveyed 37 tracts, which, however, aggregate not quite
2000 acres. Those of above 100 acres number only four. Several
are of 10 to 20 acres only. Twelve were taken by men already here.
Some others were seemingly taken by junior members of the pioneer
families. During the next four years, which interval brings us to the
outbreak of the Indian war, there are only five new surveys which seem
to belong to the Bath area.
This abrupt falling off in the amount of land surveyed between
1740 and 1755 tells a very plain story. All the more desirable lands
had now been taken; the early settlers, who seldom chose tracts of
less than 200 acres, were a substantial class of men and the little sur-
veys of 1750-51, so far as associated with the names of later comers,
generally indicate men of less stability and more limited means.
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 19
We close this chapter with a tradition bearng on the early settle-
ment of Bath. The story was put into print quite a while ago, and
was related by a man whose personal recollection must have begun
nearly a century since. It runs as follows :
Peter Francisco settled near the eastern foot of the Blue Ridge.
With the help of the men who located around him, he blazed a path
to the summit of the mountain wall. John Lewis, Robert Clark,
and James Mayse joined him in the decision to explore the country
lying westward, and late in a September the four men set out afoot.
Once on the mountan top they were struck with the broad expanse
of desirable country in full view. They went forward a consider-
able distance, and on their return they marked out a trail for pack-
In the spring they set forth again, this time with horses, and
reached the Cowpasture at Fort Lewis. Selecting a hollow lying
against a high cliff, they built a hut of three rooms and fenced it in
with a barracade of felled trees. They planted corn, potatoes, and
turnips, and in the fall stored away their little crop, burying the veg-
etables under the floor of the hut. Then they returned, no Indians
having been seen.
The second spring there were about 20 men to go to the Cowpasture
several being accompanied by their families. The hut was undisturb-
ed, except that squirrels had eaten much of the corn and the foxes
had looked out for the venison and bear meat. More land was clear-
ed and individual huts were to be built in the fall. After the grow-
ing corn was "laid by," several of the men went back for additional
supplies. There were left behind four women, a man lamed by an
axe-cut in his foot, and a boy named Joseph Mayse.
The third morning afterward, a party of Indians captured the
four women and the small store of eatables and fired the hut. The boy
who was hoeing corn barefoot, was also taken. The man had hob-
bled some distance up the river and was fishing. Hearing the yells
and seeing the smoke, he crawled up a bluff to get a better view. Some
Indians with the boy and two of the women passed below without
seeing him. He supposed the other women killed, but feared to fire,
since it might lead to the death of the captives. The company passed
on, and he was about to descend the bluff, when the other women
came in sight, urged along by a switch in the hand of a solitary Indian.
20 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Their condition made it impossible for them to travel as fast as the
others. Enraged by the spectacle, the lame man shot the driver dead,
but the report of his gun did not cause the other Indians to return.
The red men and their prisoners camped that night in a cave a
mile above Bath Alum. When they had reached Beaver Run on
Gauley they were overtaken by the men of the settlement, who, upon
seeing the smoke from a mountain summit, at once turned back in
pursuit. The Indians, though taken by surprise, made their escape,
but the captives tried to follow, thinking the assailants were other In-
dians. They had reached and swum the Gauley, before the rescuers
could overtake them and tell them to go back to camp and live on the
venison that was there. The men resumed the pursuit. The women and
the boy missed the trail in the darkness and followed a deerpath,
which took them to a river that ran the wrong way to be the Gauley.
This stream was broad and shoal and they easily got across. On the
farther side they saw many buffalos and other grazing animals, some
of them drinking from a spring. The fugitives were hungry and
tired. The boy picked up a knife that had been dropped by an Indian
and killed a buffalo calf, although for a while its cries maddened the
herd and compelled the boy and women to keep out of its way. After
the animals dispersed he cut out a ham. While searching for the
women he fell into the spring, and its salty water made his feet smart.
In two days they reached the source of the river, which was the
Elk. From the mountain they were now on, they thought they could
recognize the ridge east of the Greenbrier. Their meat had become
tainted, but the resourceful boy caught fish in the Elk, using a string
of hickory bark as a fishing line. When they reached the Greenbrier
they recognized the point where they had crossed. The waters were too
deep for wading, their firsh were spoiled, and they could get no more
in the muddy river. But the men, who were mounted, presently came
along and they had plenty of venison captured from the Indians.
What had happened to the latter the men could not be induced to
tell. In two more days they reached the home on the Cowpasture,
where the lame man had saved from the fire a building of green logs
intended for a stable. This he had made comfortable for the women,
and in a few days the little colony was increased by two infant boys.
This legend of the discovery of the mineral springs of Webster
county cannot be accepted at face value. Like some other narratives
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 21
of the old frontier, it appears to confuse names and events belonging
to different periods of time. John Lewis never lived east of the Blue
Ridge, and the elder Joseph Mayse did not settle on the Cowpasture
before 1746. Peter Francisco lived in Bedford County and was a
soldier of the Revolution. He was a giant in size and strength and
wielded a broad-sword five feet long? With this terrible weapon he
cut down eleven British soldiers in the battle of Guilford. The
younger Joseph Mayse was not taken by the Indians until nearly 20
years after the settlement of the Cowpasture. His experience, as told
by himself, has little agreement with this narrative. And if the four
captives could swim the Gauley, why could they not swim the Green-
The only chronological place for the story is in the year 1743, at
which time the Augusta people had some trouble with the red men,
though it was not of very serious nature. It is probable that the
legend includes some facts, otherwise lost sight of, which concern the
original settlement around Fort Lewis. That settlement may have
Legun in 1743, in which case the legend would be partially correct.
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT
N COLONIAL times an immigrant to Virginia who was
of age and could prove he had paid the cost of his pas-
sage from Europe could claim a "headright," which en-
titled him to 50 acres of the public domain. He could al-
so take up 50 acres for each adult male member of his household. The
man availing himself of the headright privilege was required to settle
on the land, to improve at least six per cent of the acreage, and to pay
each year a quitrent of one shilling (17 cents) for each 5 acres. The
tendency of this system was to fill Virginia with a good class of citi-
zens. The principle on which it is based is the same as in the case of
the present homestead law of the national government. Fifty acres
was also the amount of public land which might be taken up by the
private soldier of the Indian wars, by virtue of a proclamation of the
royal governor of 1763. In Bath the headright was not permitted to
cut any figure. As for the corn right and tomahawk right, which are
one and the same thing, they did not acquire a recognized status until
1766, and consequently have no actual bearing on the settlement of
Another system was the order of council. The governor, with the
concurrence of his council, a body of men corresponding to the present
state senate, would grant a huge block of land to an individual, or to a
group of men acting as a company. In theory the purpose of the order
of council was to settle a minimum number of families on the grant
within a stated time. The grantee was supposed to be prohibited from
charging more than a specified price per acre. He issued deeds, just as
though the grant was owned by himself in fee simple. In modern
usage the order of council would be defined as a method of coloniza-
tion. But in practice there was created a non-resident proprietorship,
enabling influential men in favor with the powers-that-were to levy
for their personal benefit a plump tax on a body of settlers, and with-
out rendering a corresponding benefit in return. Such a way of doinq:
things was a graft. It discriminated against the small landseeker. It
cornered the desirable land in a region where the proportion of rough
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 23
land is very large. Unless the settler was able to pay a comparatively
high price for such choice land, he had to go on to the very verge of
settlement. Many persons did so and in this way a thin fringe of set-
tlement was pushed forward too rapidly for comfort or safety. Fur-
thermore, the colonial government is said to have been very lenient
toward its favorites in the matter of enforcing forfeiture where there
was a failure to comply with the settlement condition. Sometimes the
grantee did not charge the full minimum price per acre. At other
times he exacted more than was his due.
The headright method was equitable. It assumed that the settler
was capable of choosing land for himself. The other method was
monopolistic. It assumed that the immigrant was too much like a
child to select for himself, and that it was fair and proper to allow
some self-constituted agency to charge him a high price for a compara-
tively small service.
The following paragraph, taken from a petition presented to the
Legislature by Botetourt citizens in 1779, doubtless voiced a very prev-
A few artful monopolizers, possessed of immense sums of money, which
they have accumulated by taking advantage of the necessities of individuals,
have it in their power to engross the greatest part of the public lands on this
side of the Ohio, whilst the brave soldier is limited to a small portion and
the virtuous citizen is implicitly debarred from getting any at all.
As we have already seen, a syndicate which included Thomas and
Andrew Lewis was given in 1743 an order of council for 30,000 acres.
We recognize as portions of this grant 91 separate tracts, covering
about 27,000 acres, and surveyed in 1745-6. The Lewis brothers were
good judges of land and they scarcely overlooked any section of river-
bottom that was of first desirability. Neither did they fail to take no-
tice of the limestone uplands of Warm Springs. These they seem to
have covered by entries, probably as early as 1743. The surveys based
upon such entries are of considerably later date than the 91 we are
about to consider.
These original surveys average about 300 acres. Several of the
more choice tracts were reserved by the Lewises for personal owner-
ship or for speculation. Of the others all but seven had been taken by
individual landseekers before the surveyors came around. The further
progress of private ownership in this basin of the upper James may be
24 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
read in the lists of patents for the remaining fragments of river-bottom
and the more desirable tracts of upland. Much of this later patenting
went to the enlargement of the original estates. These later surveys
may be classed as culls. Many of them were not made into new farms
and their history is of far less interest than that of the primary sur-
We therefore append to this chapter a list and description of these
primary surveys. Where we find conveyances of title during the first
50 years of settlement, we include in the record all but the least im-
portant of these transactions. Yet here and there an item is missing
which we have not been able to find. In a few other instances there is
an element of uncertainty. Now and then an entry seems not to have
found its way into the record books.
The holdings under the Lewis grant constituted the key to the ear-
ly history of the upper basin of the James. The lands esteemed choice
by the settlers cover only one-twentieth of this area. This fraction
was taken up by men of enterprise and resource; men capable of car-
rying on a plantation rather than a common farm. Now and then a
settler dropped out of the race, usually because of Indian raids or fi-
nancial embarrassment. Other men, feeling cramped by the narrow
valleys, or impelled by sheer restlessness, moved at length to the Caro-
lina uplands or into the smooth country of the Mississippi Valley. If
the pioneer did not himself migrate, his son or his grandson was quite
certain to do so. If his surname has not utterly disappeared during
the seventeen decades of settlement, the outflow has in most instances
been of such volume as to leave behind only a small representation of
Since Greater Bath covered nearly all the upper valley of the
James, we have thought it best to include the Lewis surveys in High-
land and Alleghany.
Beginning with the most eastern of the sources of the Bullpasture,
that valley, as far down as the Lockridge neighborhood, was parcelled
off into the surveys claimed by Elliot, De la Montony, syndicate (224
acres), Armstrong (112), Carlile (204), McCreery (208), Holman,
Largent, syndicate (175), Harper, Miller (250), Bodkin, Estill,
Carlile (304), Carlile (284), and Lewis (348).
On the Cowpasture, immediately above the mouth of the Bullpas-
ture, w.is Black. Just above him was Knox (254) and across the
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 25
Cowpasture was Jackson (340). Above Knox was Hall (212), and
beyond him were Rainey, Jackson (163), and syndicate (286), these
four not forming an altogether connected series. For about nine
miles below the mouth of the Bullpasture the order was as follows:
Lewis (390), McCreery (520), Lewis (430), Lewis (950), and
Mayse (182). Southward to the mouth of Stuart's Creek the order
is approximately this: Cartmill, Knox (93), Moore, Clendennin
(195), Clendennin (130). Knox and Moore were separated by the
river. Abercrombie lay on Cromby's Run, now Thompson's Creek.
Laverty was at the mouth of Stuart's Creek. Just above him on that
stream was Stuart. Beyond was first McCay and then Mitchell.
Some distance higher up were Gillespie (300), Edwards, Hall (150),
and Fitzpatrick. Just below Laverty and nearly opposite was Wad-
dell. Thence, until we come into the great bend of the Cowpasture
beginning at Griffith's Knob, the succession is as follows: Dicken-
son (1080), Millroy, Donally, Coffey, Watson, Muldrock (130),
Duagherty, Walker, Mayse (415), Crockett (246), Scott, Simpson,
Gillespie (320). Muldrock had a small survey near the mouth of
the Cowpasture, and in the bend above was Gannt's.
In the pocket of bottom on Jackson's River, beginning just above
the Highland line, there came, successively, Miller (487), Mayse
(234), Lewis (304), and Lewis (489). Below the defile above
Fort Dinwiddie were the very long surveys of Jackson (1100) and
Dickenson (870). Thence along the river to the mouth of Dunlap —
first called Carpenter's Creek, Peter's Creek, and Meadow Creek —
the succession is about as follows: Crockett (283), Davis, Jameson,
Armstrong (270), Ewing, Crockett (195), Elliot (163), Wilson,
Montgomery, and Dunlap, together with three syndicate surveys.
On the lower portion of the site of Covington was Wright, and in the
river-loop below was Carpenter.
About the source of Falling Spring was a Dickenson survey. Well
up on Dunlap was a large Lewis survey and another held by the syn-
dicate. On Back Creek was a Lewis survey and four syndicate sur-
veys, three of the latter lying at the mouth of Little Back Creek.
The surveys in the Lewis grant were patented by the first occu-
pants or by their successors. The certificates of survey were trans-
ferable by law, and were given to the settlers in return for the pur-
chase money of 10 cents per acre.
26 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
It would seem as though most of the settlers were either unable
or unwilling to pay for their lands, or that they wished to worry the
Lewis syndicate into granting patents for a nominal consideration.
At any rate, many suits were brought against them by Robinson
and Lewis between 1747 and 1752. The defendants in these suits
include an undue proportion of the leading men of the settlements.
The suit of Mays v. Lewis, 1746, throws considerable light on
the early settlement of Bath. Joseph Mayse states that he agreed to
purchase of John Lewis 500 acres in one or more blocks. Lewis was
to survey at his own cost, and give perfect title in fee simple when-
ever so required. Mayse was to pay three pounds per 100 acres and
paid down two pounds. A 200-acre tract was laid off on the Cow-
pasture and Lewis promised to lay off the other 300 acres when asked
to do so. Mayse paid the surveyor one pistole ($3.61) and decided
to take the other 300 acres on Jackson's River, adjoining William
Wilson. James Trimble, alias Turnbull, there ran off for him 234
acres. In the fall Mayse built a cabin on it, paid 40 shillings, and al-
ways stood ready to pay the residue in cash, but Lewis demanded a
bond, which Mayse refused to give, as he expected interest would be
required. Mayse understands that Lewis has sold the 234 acres to a
In his reply, Lewis states that the bargaining was in June, 1746.
Mayse lives on the Cowpasture survey. Lewis denies that Mayse
paid him 40 shillings or any smaller sum on the same, but admits
that Mayse let him have a tweed hat and some other trifles, which
he understands were not to apply on the purchase. Lewis says Mayse
never paid 40 shillings on the Jackson's River land, but on the con-
trary owed him 43 shillings, which he could not get till he threaten-
ed suit. Mayse had money in the hands of John Brown. The Latter
made over to Lewis a doubloon, out of which Lewis paid to himself
the 43 shillings and was ready to pay Mayse what was left. He con-
fessed selling the 234 acres and being paid in cash for it. He gave
Mayse notice to settle and either pay down or give bond for the pur-
chase money for both tracts, the bond to bear interest from the end
of August, 1747. Mayse flatly refused to do either and demanded
a patent in his own name. Lewis declares he has always been ready
ti» L r ive deed or patent for the 200-acre tract, provided Mayse took
500 acres in all, cither paving in specie or giving his bond. In his re-
joinder, Mayse reaffirms his previous statement.
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 27
In McCreery v. Justice, we find this memorandum by James
Trimble, dated August 7, 1750: "Surveyed for Wm. Warrick 224
Acres in Newfound Land between Saml De La Matonye & Car-
lile." Thomas Lewis says John McCreery paid him $6.54 for the sur-
veying, which was done for Warrick. In 1749 a charge of $10.75
was added to the foregoing. John Justice gave bond to pay Mc-
Creery $22.50 "for my right of a piece in the bull paster," also the
purchase money to John Lewis, and the charges for the surveying
and the "patton."
The name of the person for whom the tract was surveyed is mentioned
first. Then follow, in regular succession, the acreage, the location, the
date of patent, and finally the conveyances, if any, which ensued. When no
name immediately follows the year of patent, it is to be understood that
the patent was issued in the name of the person for whom the survey was
made. Otherwise, the name of the new owner is mentioned. A star follow-
ing the acreage — as 100* — means that the survey was in 1745. All other
surveys were in 1746. The Virignia pound of $3.33 is represented by "p".
Therefore, to reduce pounds to dollars, add one cipher and divide by 3.
Other special abbreviations are these:
CP — Cowpasture; BP — Bullpasture; JR — Jackson's River; BC — Back
Creek; SC — Stuart's Creek; FS — Falling Spring Run; DC — Dunlap Creek;
A — acres: P — patent; br — branch; n — 'near; opp — opposite; adj — adjoining;
cor — cornering on ; mo — mouth of.
Abercrombie, Robert — 425— Cromby's Run, CP— P, 1760, James Gay— 336
A sold, 1773, to John Gay for lOOp — the same sold by Jas. and Jno. Gay to
Henry Rockey, of Pennsylvania for 3500p (depreciated paper money).
Armstrong, Robert— 270— JR, below Bath line— P, 1760.
Armstrong, Robert— 112— BP, below Doe Hill— 'P, 1760, William Wil-
son — sold, 1768, to Abraham Hempenstall for 46p.
Black, Alexander— 250— CP at mo. BP— P, 1750—125 A sold to Alexan-
der Black, Jr., 1765, for 40p — whole P plus later P of 34 A sold by pioneer's
sons, 1792, to Thomas Houston for 400p — sold by Houston, 1796, to John
Lewis for 1000 p — sold by Lewis, 1798, to Charles Cameron for lOOOp.
Bodkin, Richard— 339— BP above Pullin— P, 1750— sold, 1762, to Samuel
Given for 158p — 100 A sold, 1765, to James Burnside for 40p — 239 A sold
1768, to John Hicklin for 150p.
Carlile, Robert and John— 304 — BP below Estill— P 1765— divided equally
1773. between Robert and John.
Carlile, Robert and John — 204 — W side BP below Armstrong's 112 — P,
1759— sold, 1786, by George Carlile to William Erwin for lOp. Sold, 1793,
by William and Susanna'Erwin to James Hutchinson for 140p.
Carlile, Robert and John— 300— P, 1759— CP, E side Indian Draft— sold
to John Carlile, Jr., 1773 for 70p.
28 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Carlile, John— 281— BP below Carlile's 30-1 — P, 1750, William Wilson-
sold 1761, by Matthew Wilson (brother and heir) to Robert Graham for
67i/ 2 p.
Carpenter, Joseph— 782— JR below Wright— P, 1750 — 230 A sold, 1762, to
John Mann for 700 — 1-64 A divided equally, 1765, between Joseph and Solo-
mon Carpenter (sons), each paying father lOp — 160 A of Solomon's share
purchased at public sale, 1772, by William Hughart for 90p, and sold by him,
1786, to Wallace Estill, Jr. for 260p. However, Solomon Carpenter and
Sutney his wife sold to John Mann, 1773, 160 A for 130p.
Cartmill, John— 300*— CP touching Indian Draft— P, 1760—245 A sold,
1774, to Samuel Cartmill for lOOp, and by him, 1787, to Nathan Crawford.
Clendennin, Archibald — 195 — CP n mo SC — P 1750, Thomas Thompson,
Clendennin, Archibald — 130 — adj his other tract — P, 1750, Thomas
Coffey, Hugh— 220*— CP below Donally— P 1750— Sold 1766, by John Cof-
fey (son) to John Ramsey for 40p, and by him, 1794, to Samuel McDannald
for 150p. John McDannald then a neighbor.
Crockett, Robert— 195— JR mo Cedar Creek— P, 1760, John Dickenson—
sold 1762, to James Fitzpatrick for 30p — sold, 1793, by Fitzpatrick to Paul
Harpole for 225p.
Crockett, Robert — 246 — CP below James Mayse — P, 1750, John and Arch-
ibald (sons) — sold, 1776, to James Beard and by him to Richard Mayse,
1794, for 385p.
Crockett, Robert— 283— JR above mo FS— P 1750,Samuel (son)— sold,
1762, to Alexander Hamilton for 40p — sold by Hamilton, 1765, to William
Hamilton for lOOp — sold by latter, 1771, to Samuel Kincaid for 50p — sold by
Kincaid, 1780, to Andrew Kincaid for 400p — 76 A sold by Andrew Kincaid, of
Greenbrier, to John Kincaid, 1795, for 35p.
Davis, David— 320— E side JR, mo FS— P, 1760, Robert Abercrombie—
sold, 1761, to John Stuart for 150p — sold by Stuart, 1761, to William Mann
for 152p — sold by Mann, 1784, to John Robinson for 60p.
De La Montony, Samuel— 200 — CP below Elliott— P, John McCreery—
sold, 1760 to John Bodkin for 25p— sold by Bodkin, 1762, to Robert Duffield
for 21i^p — sold by Duffield, 1794, to William Armstrong for 300p.
Dickenson, Adam— 1080*— CP between Waddell and Millroy — P, 1750—
311 A sold, 1754, to Alexander Craighead for 150p, and by Craighead, 1765,
to Andrew Sitlington for 200p.
Dickenson, Adam— 870— JR below Jackson's 1100 A— P 1750—215 A (up-
per end) sold, 1754, to John Byrd for 25p— 377 A (middle) sold, 1754, to
James Bourland for 75p — 317 A (lower end) sold, 1754, to William Dean
for 75p. Dean sold to John Dean (brother), 1765, for lOOp — Bourland sold
175 A, 1774 to Robert McClentic for 154p. Note:— The sales by Dicken-
son show an excess of acreage.
Dickenson, Adam— 546— FS valley— P, 1750— sold, 1767, by John Dicken-
son and Benjamin Estill (mortgagee) to Gabriel Jones for 250p — sold by
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 29
Jones, 1792, together with P's of 217 and 82 A to Thomas Massie for 500p.
At same time, Jones sold to Elisha Williams 3 other tracts in WS, 910 A, for
Donally John— 277*— CP above Coffey— P, 1751.
Daugherty, William— 285*— CP between Muldrock and Walker— P, 1750
—sold by heirs, 1791, to Robert Sitlington for 330p.
Dunlap, Arthur — 270 — JR mo Dunlap Creek — P, 1750, William Jackson —
sold, 1772, to Richard Morris for lOOp.
Edwards, Hugh — 174 — SC, cor Thomas Gillespie— P, 1763, Charles Lew-
is sold, 1769, to John McCausland — sold by latter, 1791, to Andrew McCaus-
Elliott, Archibald — 364 — sources of BP and Blackthorn — P, 1756, James
Trimble — sold, 1757, to George Wilson for 55p — 200 A sold by Wilson to
Samuel Wilson for 40p — 164 A (remainder of survey?) sold by Samuel Wil-
son, 1773, to John McCoy for 150p.
Elliott, Archibald— 163— JR—P (?)— sold, 1758, to John Johnson— sold,
1759, by James Clark and William Elliott (through power of attorney from
Archibald Elliott) to William Johnson, assignee of John Johnson, for 60p —
sold by William Johnson, 1762, to John Bollar for 50p.
Estill, Wallace— 344 — BP at Clover Creek mill — P, 1750—131 A sold,
1761, to Boude Estill (son) for 40p, and by latter, 1774, to James Carlile for
108p— 213 A sold by Wallace Estill, 1774, to John Pebbles for 200p, and sold
by Pebbles' heirs, 1805, to David Gwin for $1500.
Ewing, James — 254 — JR at Muddy Run — P, 1760, Archibald Armstrong —
sold, 1793, by Armstrong to John Sumwalt for 105p.
Fitzpatrick, Thomas — '190 — SC — P, 1761, John Stephenson — sold to John
Gillespie, 1767, for 30p.
Gannt, Robert— 1-0— CP— P, 1770, John Ramsay (?)
Gillespie, William— 320— CP opp Griffith Knob— P, 1761— sold, 1780, to
Aaron Hughes for 10,000p (depreciated money).
Gillespie, Thomas— 300— SC—P, 1760—150 A sold, 1795, to John Edwards
for HOp, and by him, 1779, to Jacob Rodecap for 180p.
Hall, James— 150— SC—P, 1750— sold, 1770, to Andrew Donally, and by
him, 1779 to Leonard Bell. Seems to have been sold, 1797, by Samuel Gilles-
pie to John Edwards for HOp.
Hall, James-^212— CP above Laurel Gap— P, 1750— sold to Robert Hall,
1760, for lOp, and by him to Joseph Gwin, 1772, for lOOp.
Harper, Matthew— 220— BP above Miller— P, 1758— sold, 1764, to Hugh
Martin for 80p — sold by Martin to John Miller, of Rockingham, — sold by
Miller, 1789, to Charles Callahan.
Holman, William — 265 — BP above Largent— P (?) — probably acquired by
Edward Hynes, who died about 1778.
Hughart, James— 590— E side CP adj Cartmill and Indian Draft— P. 1750
— sold, 1772, by Thomas Hughart (son) to James Hughart, Jr., (son) — 112 A
sold by Thomas and James, 1784, to Nathan Crawford for 40p — 110 A sold
by James Hughart, Jr., 1793 to John Hughart (son) for 5p.
30 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Jackson, William — 1100 — JR at Fort Dinwiddie — P, 1750 — Repatented,
1784, by Robert Hall, who in 17S0 purchased for 5 shillings 320 A of John
Oliver— 100 A sold by Hall (1783?) to William Allen— 1000 A sold, 1788, to
Jacob Warrick for 1500p— 261^4 A sold, 1795, by Warrick to Charles Cam-
Jackson, James— 340— CP opp mo BP— P, 1750, John Jackson— 170 A sold
1765, by William Jackson to Francis Jackson for 30p, and by latter, 1769,
to William Renick for 42p — sold by Renick, 1776, to George Benson for 65p —
the other 170 sold, by William Jackson, Jr., to Robert Hall for 600p.
Jackson, James— 168— CP—P, 1759, William Sprowl— sold to William
Steuart, 1761, for 30p.
Jameson, William — 280 — E side JR cor Ewing — P, 1760, John Jameson
(son) — sold, 1765, to Archibald Armstrong, Sr., for 50p, and by the latter,
1767, to Robert Armstrong, Sr., for lOOp — 145 A sold, 1780, to Benjamin Tall-
man — James Kirk, a neighbor, 1780. But in 1795, Robert Armstrong, Sr., sold
196 to James Sttele for 200p.
Knox, James— 25-1 — CP above Black— P, 1760—100 A sold, 1765, to Robert
Knox for 20 p, and by latter, 1776, to Thomas Nickell — 160 A sold, 1769, to
Patrick Miller for 70p.
Knox, James — 93 — CP adj John Moore— P, 1760 — sold, 1761, to Edward
Thompson for 31^p, and by him, 1763, to Joseph McClung for 30p.
Largent, James — '212 — BP below Holman and on a small br — P (?) —
sold, 1762, by William Johnson to Thomas Hamilton for 16^p, and by Ham-
ilton, 1773, to Joseph Beathe.
Laverty, Ralph— 300— CP mo SC— P, 1750— conveyed to Mrs. Rebecca
Hamilton (daughter), 1786.
Lewis, John— 950— CP at Fort Lewis^P, 1750, Charles Lewis.
Lewis, John— 304 — JR at "great lick" (Bolar Run)— P, 1760, William
Lewis, Andrew — 348— BP below Carlile's 281 A— P. 1750— sold, 1756,
to Thomas Hicklin for 60p — 217 sold by latter, 1761, to John Hicklin (son)
for 50p, and by Samuel Given, of Botetourt, 1776, to Andrew Lockridge for
270p— 131 A sold, 1770, by Thomas Hicklin to Thomas Hicklin, Jr., (son)
and sold, 1793, by James Lockridge to Alexander Wiley for 230p — this sold
by Wiley to John Steuart 1797.
Lewis, William— 390— CP and BP below Black— P, 1750— sold, 1752, to
Thomas Feamster for 37^p — 100 A sold, 1764, by Feamster to John Mont-
gomery for 48p, and by latter, 1792, to Alexander Taylor for ISOp.
Lewis, Thomas — 304, 210, and 150 — mo of little BC — P as one tract, 1759,
by Robert Abercrombie — sold, 1760, to Robert Gay — 364 A sold, 1765, by
(iay to Samuel Vance and William Hutchinson for 60p — 183 A sold, 1766, to
Samuel Vance for 50p — 133 A sold, 1766, to John Vance for 50p.
Lewis, Thomas — 489 — JR below Bolar Run — P, 1764, Robert Bratton and
Ralph Laverty — sold. 1769, by Bratton and Laverty, 244^ A to William
Given for 70p and 244^ to Adam Bratton, 1770, for 150p — Given sold, 1792,
98*/£ A to Robert Given for lOp. But in 1753, Thomas patented his sur-
vey here of 489 acres and sold it the same year to James Gay for 115p.
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 31
Lewis, Thomas— 560— BC—P, 1761— sold, 1761 to James and Robert
Allen for 80p — 280 A sold by the Aliens, 1763, to John Young for 45p — sold
by Young, 1766, to John Davis for 67p, and by latter to James Gregory, 1768
f or 75 p — 280 A sold by Robert Allen, 1763, to John Davis for lOOp, and 85 A
sold by Davis, 1768, to David Tate for 17p, and by latter to John Sprowl,
1770, for 20p.
Lewis, Thomas— 95— BC—P (?)
Lewis, George^30— CP below McCreerys 520 A— P, 1752 — 215 sold,
1755, to John Lewis (son) for 120p, and by him to Charles Lewis, 1772, for
lOOp — 215 sold, 1775, to Benjamin Lewis (son) for 90p, and by him to David
Frame, 1772, for 150p.
Mayse, James — +15— CP below Walker— P, 1760, William Mayse (son).
Mayse, Joseph— 182— CP below Lewis' 950 A— P, 1761.
Mayse, Joseph— 234 — JR below Miller— P, 1760, Stephen Wilson— sold,
1797, to David Gwin for 1600p.
McCay, James— 290 — SC above Stuart— P, 1759— sold, 1784, by Jane Mc-
Cay of Greenbrier (widow) to Andrew and Charles Donally — sold, 1795 by-
Charles Donally to Benedict Ailshe for 300p— 150 sold by Aishe, 1798, to
McCreery, John— 520— CP below Lewis' 390 A— P, 1751—260 A sold,
1765, to Robert McCreery (son) for 120p, and by him* 1790, plus 30 A to
Thomas Wallace for 500p— 260 A plus later P of 16 A sold, 1787, by John
McCreery Jr (son) to John Bourland for 500p.
McCreery, John— 280— BP below Carlile's 204 A— P, 1760, 1773, sold,
1763, to Richard Bodkin for 45p — sold (with mill) by Bodkin to Joseph Mal-
com for 50p.
Miller, John— 487— JR above Mayse's 234 A— P, 1760 — 243 A sold, 1770,
to David Gwin for lOOp— 244 A sold, 1767, by Robert Miller, of Albemarle,
to George Skillern for 250p.
Miller, James — 250 — BP above Bodkins' — P, 1760, James Burnside — sold
plus 100 A of Bodkin land, to John Hicklin, 1786, for 300p— 196 A sold, 1789,
by Andrew Lockridge to James Lockridge.
Millroy, Alexander— 200*— CP below Dickenson's 1080 A— P, 1751— sold
1762, to William Sprowl for 200p, and by Sprowl, 1772, to Hugh Hicklin for
132p— 178 A sold by Hicklin, 1794, to George Whiteman for 250p and 22 A
1794, to John Dickenson.
Mitchell, John— 234* — SC above McCay— P, 1759— sold to George Wil-
son for 80p — sold by Wilson, 1768, to Charles Donally for 90p, and by lat-
ter, 1791, to James Graham for 250p.
Montgomery, James — 220 — JR above Wright — P, 1750, Charles Walker.
Moore, John— 220*— CP below Mayse's 182— P, 1759.
Muldrock, Andrew — 130 — CP between Watson and Daugherty — P, 1761
— sold by Hugh Muldrock, 1781, to Casper Faught for 140p and by him,
1785, to Robert Sitlington for 80p.
Muldrock, Andrew— 40— mo of CP— P, 1761.
32 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Pullen, Loftus— 321— BP between Estill and Bodkin— P, 1758.
Raney, Michael— 216— CP adj Hall's 212 A— P, 1760, Charles Gilham—
sold, 1763, to James Bodkin for 41p, and by him to Robert Carlile, 1767,
Scott, James — 190— CP below Crockett's 246 A— P, 1751— sold, 1781, to
Joseph Surber for 400p.
Simpson, James — 300* — CP below Scott — P, 1761 — sold to James Handley
1762 — 58 A sold, 1772, to John Henry Insminger for 55p.
Stuart, James— 300— SC Laverty— P, 1750— sold, 1800, by Robert Stuart to
Richard Mathews and by him, 1802, to Joseph Kincaid.
Syndicate — 875 — DC — P, 1750, Adam Dickenson.
Syndicate — 490— DC— P, 1760, John Dickenson— sold, 1766, to William
Hughart for SOp, and by him, 1768, to Andrew and Thomas Lewis for 120p
— sold 1768 by Andrew Lewis to James Blair.
Syndicate— 286— CP above Knox's 254 A— P, 1760, John Miller— sold,
to John Kincaid for SOp.
Syndicate — 175 — BP between Largent and Harper — P, 1750, John Brown
— sold to Hance Harper, 1753, for 20p, and by him, 1768, to Samuel Black —
63 A sold, 1787, by John Black (son) to James Curry for 10p.
Syndicate— 224 — BP below De La Montony— P, 1750, John McCreery—
sold 1753, to John Justice for 13J4p, and by him, 1754, to Michael Harper
for 30p — sold by Harper, 1760, to William Shannon for 35p, and by him,
1765, to Robert Scott for 29p — 'sold by Scott, 1768, to James Burnside for 42p,
and by him, 1772, to William McCandless for 42p — sold by McCandless, 1775,
to Robert Hestent, of Dunmore, (Shenandoah) county for 170p, and by him,
1779, to Paul Summers for 700p (depreciated money). This place was by
this time known as the Burdie house.
Syndicate— 196 (169?)— JR mo Cedar Creek— P (?)
Syndicate— 94— JR-^P, 1771, William Lewis
Waddell, James — 224* — CP between Laverty and Dickenson's 1890 A — P,
1750, Ralph Laverty — sold, 1770, to William Laverty (son) for 25p, and by
him, 1774 to John Sitlington for \\2 1 /^ — deeded by Sitlington, 1790, to James
Walker, John— 340— CP below Daugherty— P, 1759, John and Archibald
Warrick, William— '216— br of CP— P, 1759, Henry Gay— 98 A sold by
Martha Gay (widow), 1780, to Andrew Moody for lOOOp (depreciated
Watson, Joseph— 200 CP between Coffey and Muldrock— P, 1760, by heirs
who sold, 1769, to James Scott for 22^p.
Wilson, George — 175— JR n Cedar Creek— P, 1759 (?) James Callison—
sold, 1760, to James Bourland for 30p, and by him to Rowland Madison —
sold by Madison, 1787, to James Elliot for lOOp and by James Elliot, 1791,
to Moses Mann for 250p. Note: — George Wilson, 1758, patented on the CP
or Shaw's Fork an unlisted survey of 316 A. From this he appears to have
sold in 1759 105 A to William Steuart for 20p, and 100 A to James Shaw for
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 33
lOp. In 1762 he sold James Clements 100 A for $15.46. Shaw sold to
James Bodkin, 1766, for 25p, and he to James Steuart, 179+ for 109p.
Clements sold, 1776, to Jared Erwin, of Rockingham, for 200p.
Wright, Peter — 286 — JR at Covington — P, 1750 — divided between Peter,
Jr., and John (sons).
SURVEYS OF 1750-1754
Clendennin, Thomas— 1754 — 68— Warm Springs Run--P, 1757— sold,
1797, by Thomas, Jr., (son) to Anthony Mustoe and William Chambers for
Cochran, Patrick— 1750— 24 — JR— P, 1765, James Scott— sold, 1768, to
Patrick Corrigan for 20p.
Cochran, Patrick— 1750— 18— CP—P, 1765, James Scott.
Crockett, John— 1750— 24— CP.
Davis, Patrick— 1750— 44 — CP below Robert Crockett — P, 1767— sold,
1770, to James Milligan for 30p, and by him to William Griffith, 1776, for
Dickenson, Adam — 1750 — 135 — JR, P, 1761, Zopher Carpenter — sold to
Michael Mallow, 1789, for 275p.
Dickinson, Adam— 1751— 33— DC— P, 1763, John Dickenson.
Seely, Jeremiah— 1754 — 100— Dry Run of JR— P, 1761, Peter Wright.
Thompson, Edward— 1751— 42— CP adj Knox's 93 A— P, 1770, William
Warwick, William^l750— 50— JR— P, 1761, William Gillispie.
Wilson, William— 1754— 100— JR—P, 1765.
Wilson, Hercules— 1754 — 74 — head of CP—P, 1774, George Wilson.
Wilson, George— 1750— 90— br of SC— P, 1761, James McCay— sold,
1793, by William McCay to Charles Donally for 25p.
Other patents for this region, in the period 1741-1769 inclusive, are
these, the acreage, date and descriptions being given consecutively:
Adams, Thomas — 340 — 1767 — adjoining Hot Springs survey.
Arbuckle, James — 400 — 1749 — north side James below Island Ford.
Boggs, James — 23 5 — 1766 — JR — between Jackson and William Hamilton.
Clark, John— 210— 1769— BC of James.
Davis, John— 45— 1769— JR.
Dunlap, William— 100— 1750— mo BC.
Fulton, Thomas — 115 — 1759 — west side JR.
Gellispie, Hugh— 85— 1769— west side SC.
Grove, John — 400 — 1741 — including fork at mo of CP.
Hanly, Archibald — 58 — 1765 — northwest side of CP.
Hardin, Benjamin — 44 — 1775 — head of JR.
Hanley, Archibald — 58 — 1765 — northwest side CP.
Hardin, Benjamin — 44 — 1755 — head of JR.
Henry, William — 120 — 1759 — main branch James opp. mo. of CP.
Hicklin, Hugh: (1) 130— 1769— CP (2) 100— 1758— on a draft of BP.
34 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Hicklin, Thomas — 68 — 1761 — BP — adj. Andrew Lewis land on southwest.
Lewis, Thomas— 1300— 1763— "the valley" of BC.
Lewis William — six surveys on BC, in 1763, of 110, 148, 172, 220, 187,
and 100 A. and one at Vanderpool of 270.
Hugart, Thomas— 65— 1760— JR.
Mann, William — 1^9 — 1765 — JR below BC.
Mathews, Sampson and George — 69 — 1769 — head SC.
McCallister, James— 100— 1760— JR.
McCay, James— 90— 1761— SC.
McClenahan, William— 50— 1769— BC below Davis.
McCutchen, William— 166— 1760 ( ?)— mo of Cedar of JR.
Mcllwain, Alexander — 190 — 1761 — branch of Cedar.
McMurray, William — 20 — 1761 — McMurray Creek of CP.
McSherry, Luke— 186— 1761— BC of James.
Miller, Robert— 150— 1762— JR.
Montgomery, John— 30 — 1769— BP.
Montgomery, James — 5-1 — 1757 — northwest side JR.
Moore, David— 200— 1763— Bolar Run.
Muldrock, Jean: (1) 30— 1769— fork of James at CP (2) 33—1769—
James River adj. homestead.
Preston, William— 130— 1763— small branch of BP. William Preston
in 1769 took 6 surveys on Pott's Creek of 250, 200, 150, 300, and 95 A.
Simpson, James — +5— 1761— BC of CP.
Switchard, Henry— 85— 1755— BC of James.
Wade, Dawson— 125— 1767— branch of BP.
Wright, Peter— 100— 1767— Pott's Creek.
Young, James — 98 — 1769 — head branch of CP.
The foregoing surveys do not include all the individual patents in
Warm Springs Valley by the Lewises, Bullitts, etc.
The new names occurring among the patentees for the remainder of the
eighteenth century are but few. The following are all we are reasonably
Adams, Robert Dowden, Michael Persinger, Jacob
Alley, William Evans, Evan Poage, John
Baxter, John Hosaw, Andrew Putnam, John
Berry, John Hume, William Rhea, William
Boggs, James Logue, Samuel Richardson, Robert
Bullitt, Thomas Mason, Joseph Rockey, Henry
Bullitt, Cuthbert McColgan, Edward Satchel], William, Jr.
Clark, Samuel McDonald, Samuel Sloan, James
Coole, Richard Morrison, Ilu^'i Sydnor, Richard
Cowardton, John O'Hara, Daniel Wildridge, William
Dickey, John Oliver, John Wooten, William
Dixon, William Park, Benjamin
THE LEWIS LAND GRANT 35
We now mention several early purchasers, which in some instances
seem to relate to the original patents.
Dennis Callahan of John Dickenson — 76 of tract of 195 acres — Ugly
Creek— 5p— 1793.
Christopher Clark of Peter Wright— 96— JR— 50p— 1791.
Jacob Cleek of Alexander McFarland — 213 — JR below Given — 400p —
Henry Dill of Peter Hubbard— 285 of 600 deeded, 1767, by John Wilson
to William Rhea— Mill Cretk— 130p— 1792.
John Gillespie of Martha McCroskey, sole daughter and heir of Hugh
Gillespie, of Greenbrier— 85— SC— 20p— P, 1769—1795.
James Harris of John Cartmill — 140 — CP between James Hughart and
Nathan Crawford and corner Samuel Cartmill — lOOp — 1733 — sold by Har-
ris, 1792, to Isaac Mayse for 120p.
James Johnson of Robert Armstrong, Jr., — 100 — JR both sides Robert's
Run— 50p— 1793.
Thomas and Joseph Kincaid of John Eddy — 158 — 237p — 1797.
Robert and James McAvoy of Joseph Carpenter — 13-1 — Little Valley —
Richard McCallister of John Dickenson — 113 — Ugly — 15p — 1793
John McCorkle of Patrick Miller— 17— CP adj William Dickey— 3p—
John McCorkle of John and William Dickey — 231 (2 surveys) — CP —
Thomas Milhollen of Thomas Fitzpatrick — 32 — Cedar Creek — 30p —
Hugh Tiffany of James Blake— 13— SC— lip— 1793.
Alexander Simpson of Charles Donally — 75 — SC — 50p — 1792.
William Smythe of Peter Wright— 176— JR— 50p— 1791.
Stephen Wanless of Hugh Morrison — 95 — SC at forks of road above
James Morrow — 40p — 1792.
Jacob Warrick of William Lewis — 400 — Clover Lick on Greenbrier —
The last mentioned sale looks like a high figure, considering the sit-
AREAS OF SETTLEMENT
INCE only a very minor portion of Bath was covered by
the early holdings of the pioneer families, it is possible to
group these holdings into several tolerably well defined
areas of settlement. The names we aportion among
these areas are not presented as an exhaustive list or as one that is
free from error, even so far as it goes.
The Dickenson settlement may be considered as extending along
the Cowpasture from the gorge below Fort Lewis into the bend at
Griffith's Knob, and as including the lower course of Stuart's Creek
and the occupied part of Porter's Mill Creek. The more conspicu-
ous of the earlier names associated with this belt are Abercrombie,
Beard, Clendennin, Coffey, Crockett, Daugherty, Dickenson, Donal-
ly, Douglass, Gay, Gillispie, Graham, Hicklin, Insminger, Kelso,
Kincaid, Laverty, Madison, Mayse, McCay, McClung, McDannald,
Millroy, Mitchell, Muldrock, O'Hara, Porter, Ramsey, Scott, Simp-
son, Sitlington, Sloan, Stuart, Thompson, Waddell, Walker, Wat-
The Fort Lewis settlement began a little above the mouth of
Thompson's Creek and extended up the Cowpasture to Laurel Gap.
Here we find the names, Benson, Black, Cartmill, Cowardin, Dickey,
Feamster, Francisco, Frame, Hall, Hughart, Jackson, Knox, Lewis,
Mayse, McCreery, Miller, Montgomery, Moody, Moore, Wallace.
The upper Cowpasture settlement included the bottoms on that
river between Laurel Gap and the mouth of Shaw's Fork and on the
lower course of the latter stream. Here were the Devericks, Erwin,
Gwin, Johns, Shaw, and Steuart families.
The upper Mill Creek settlement occupied the basin of that stream
above Panther Gap. Names associated with this somewhat limited
space are Bratton, McDonald, Putnam, Rhea, Swearingen.
The Green Valley settlement embraced the upper basin of
Stuart's Creek and is connected with the following names: Bell,
Crawford, Eddy, Hall, Hcpler, Fit/patrick, McCausland, Morrow,
AREAS OF SETTLEMENT 37
The Bullpasture settlement stretched along the entire course of
that stream from its source nearly to the Bullpasture Gap. Here
the names are Beathe, Black, Bodkin, Bradshaw, Burnside, Carlile,
Curry, Davis, Duffield, Erwin, Estill, Ferguson, Graham, Harper,
Hempenstall, Hicklin, Hiner, Hynes, Jones, Justice, Lockridge, Mal-
com, McCoy, Peebles, Pullin, Siron, Summers, Wiley.
Adjacent to the Bullpasture valley, and just within the Bath line,
is the Red Holes, or Burnsville, settlement. The earlier name is
derived either from the reddish loam exposed to view in the sinkholes,
or from the artificial licks, made by driving stakes into the ground,
withdrawing them, and then filling the holes with salt. Here David
Frame patented a tract that nominally covered 1150 acres. But
when sold in 1792 to Elisha Williams, John Burns, and James and
Daniel Monroe, the lines proved so elastic as to include 1363 acres.
The bottoms on Jackson's River are less continuous than those
of the Cowpasture. The "pockets" in which they occur were main-
ly gathered into a few large surveys. The northernmost of these
pockets begins beyond the Highland line and may be called the Wilson
settlement. The names found here are Bratton, Cleek, Given,
Gwin, McFarland, Wilson.
For several miles below the Wilson settlement Jackson's River
is closely confined between lofty hills. Then comes the Fort Din-
widdie settlement, comprising two very long surveys by William
Jackson and Adam Dickenson. Here are the names Bourland, Byrd,
Cameron, Davis, Dean, Jackson, McClintic.
A short distance east of the Wilson settlement is Little Valley,
where the early names are Carpenter, McAvoy, and Pritt.
Beginning below the Fort Dinwiddie settlement, reaching nearly
to Covington, and extending up the valley of Cedar Creek was the
Fort Mann settlement, where these names occur: Armstrong, Bol-
lar, Elliot, Kincaid, Kirk, Mann, McGuffin, Montgomery, Morris,
Around and just below Covington was the Fort Young settle-
ment, occupied by the Carpenters, Mallows, Seelys, and Wrights.
On Great Back Creek, stretching some distance above and below
the mouth of Little Back Creek, was the Vance or Mountain Grove
settlement where lived the Baxters, Gregorys, Hamiltons, Kellys, and
38 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
On the lower course of Potts Creek were the Potts and Persinger
On the Cowpasture, below the pass at Griffith Knob, were sev-
eral pioneers, but our knowledge of their names is quite unsatisfactory.
The Warm Springs basin and the upper valley of Falling Spring
Run may be termed the Warm Springs settlement. But so closely
were the lands in this locality monopolized by wealthy non-residents,
that most of. the people living here in the early days were tenants, and
we know little as to who they were. This was not quite so much the
case at the Falling Springs end, which is associated with the Cham-
bers, Massie, and Mustoe families. The three tracts held by Ga-
briel Jones of Port Republic begin at Healing Springs and run a long
way to the north. North, east, and south of him were the lands of
Thomas and Cuthbert Bullitt. John Bollar had 400 acres alongside
Jones. Against the present Alleghany line were the holdings of Oli-
ver and Thompson. Immediately to the south was Thomas Massie's
tract of 3329 acres. The John Lewis survey ran north from Warm
Springs itself, and one owned by John Cowardin ran in the direction
of Warm Springs gap.
Adam Dickenson, the leading pioneer on the lower Cowpasture.
was in 1733 living at Hanover, New Jersey. In 1742 he was an
ironworker in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, but seems to have
moved in the same year to Prince George County, Maryland. It
was at this date that he entered into a bond in favor of Thomas
Lindsay, whereby he was to patent 1,000 acres on Clover Creek,
"otherwise ye Cow Pasture"; and place two families on the tract.
Four years later, he brought suit against Roger Hunt, Lindsay's as-
signee, for a failure to comply with the contract. He must have
come to the Cowpasture himself by 1744. When Augusta was or-
ganized, at the close of 1745. he alone, of the 21 justices in the first
county court, represented the portion of the county west of Shenan-
doah Mountain. His grist-mill was evidently the first in this region,
and the church built on his homestead was undoubtedly the first house
of worship among the southern Alleghanies. Dickenson acquired at
least 3321 acres of choice hind. He died intestate about 1760. His
persona] property was appraised by his neighbors, James Gillespie,
James McCay, John Young, and Andrew Sitlington, at almost
$1,000, easily the equivalent of <"\000 today. The estate included
AREAS OF SETTLEMENT 39
two slaves, 33 cattle, and a wagon valued at $23.33. The only book
was a large Bible. Abigail, a daughter, married William Mc-
Clung. Another daughter was Mary Davis.
John, the only son of Adams Dickenson, was almost an exact con-
temporary to George Washington. He was born in 1731 and died
in 1799. At the age of 22 he was a captain of horse, and during the
next 25 years he saw very much military service on the frontier. Af-
ter being wounded in at least two skirmishes with the Indians, he re-
ceived a severe hurt in the shoulder at the battle of Point Pleasant.
For this injury he was granted a pension of 50 pounds ($166.67) a
year. In 1777, with the rank of colonel, he returned to Point Pleas-
ant at the head of a regiment of militia. In 1757 he was a justice of
Augusta, but in 1779 he declined further service. Although ap-
pointed a member of the first county court of Bath, he refused the
honor. Colonel Dickenson was a large holder of real estate, owning
land on the Greenbrier and even in North Carolina. He was of
positive convictions and was influenced by high motives. His gen-
erous impulse appears in his kindness to the unfortunate Selim, and
in his refusal to deliver up some converted Indians whom the gov-
ernor assumed to be spies of the French. By a clause in his will, no
liquor was to be served at his interment, and in this matter he stood
against a very pernicious custom of his day.
His children were Mary, Martha, Nancy, Adam, Jean, and
John. Mary and Martha married, in order of mention, Samuel and
John Shrewsbury, who, after being prominent in Bath, migrated to
West Virginia. The only grandson in the male line to finish his
days in Bath was John Usher Dickenson, who returned about 1850
and was the first proprietor of the hotel at Millboro.
William Jackson gave his name to the river which runs more than
three miles through the land he took up. He may have been the
first settler on its upper course, although he could not have been living
in this valley in 1740, when he succeeded James Pickett as con-
stable. His home on Jackson's River was probably near the site of
Fort Dinwiddie. Jane and William were children. The former
married Archibald Bourland, his executor. The son, and probably
the son-in-law also, went to North Carolina. Whether the early
Jacksons of the Cowpasture were related to this family we do not
know. William Jackson died June 1, 1750, and his suits against
40 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Robert Abercrombie and Jacob Marlin were thereby abated. His
personality of $1 106.07 ranked him among the nabobs of early Bath.
The appraisement by Ralph Laverty, George Wilson, and Archi-
bald Elliot mentions 23 horses, 18 cattle, and some timothy seed.
A lancet, and the instrument of torture styled a "tooth drawers"
would appear to indicate that he made some pretensions to the heal-
ing art. It took, seven gallons of liquor to lubricate the sale of the
personal effects. Archibald Bourland, the executor, named the fol-
lowing persons at the "vandue": James Bourland, James Brown,
Thomas Bryan, John Carlile, John Crockett, William Davis, Robert
Duffield, Andrew Dunlap, Charles Dunlap, Archibald Elliot, Samuel
Ferguson, Alexander Gillespie, John Graham, Napthalim Gregory,
William Hamilton, John Harden, Michael Harper, George Lewis,
James Lockridge, Joseph Mayse. Samuel McAlvery, Alexander
Millroy, Nathan Patterson, David Stanley, John Warrick, John
Williamson, George Wilson, and Alexander Wright. A number of
these persons lived more than 20 miles away.
According to C. K. Bolton, the following Ulster immigrants
came from county Antrim. The Arbuckles, Campbells, Clarks,
Crawfords, Givens, Harpers, Jacksons, Jamesons, McCays; from
Derry, the Grahams, Lockridges, Pattons, Rheas; from Down, the
Carliles, Dunlaps, Mathews, Steuarts ; from Donegal, the Brat-
tons, Hamiltons; from Londonderry, the Kincaids; from- Tyrone,
the Burnsides, Knoxes, and Walkups.
Certain of the families who have migrated from this country include
names of considerable prominence. Thus James B. McCreery and
his cousin, Thomas C. McCreery, of Kentucky, are great grandsons
of Robert, son of John McCreery, of the Cowpasture. Both these men
have served in the United States Senate, and the former has twice
been governor of his state. Dr. Charles McCreery, the first physi-
cian to remove the collar-bone in a surgical operation, which was
done in 1813, was a son of Robert. By way of North Caro-
lina we are told that Zebulon B.. Robert B.. and Robert E. Vance
of North Carolina, are of the Vance family of Back Creek. All
three served in Congress. The first was also a famous governor of
North Carolina, and the second was a brigadier general in the Con-
federate army. Meigs County, Tennessee, is named for Return Jon-
athan Meigs, a descendent of the Clendennins. C. C. O'Hara. an
AREAS OF SETTLEMENT 41
eminent geologist, appears to be a descendant of the O'Hara who
once lived on the Cowpasture. William Bratton, one of the picked
men of the Lewis and Clarke expedition of 1803, was a grandson of
Robert Bratton of the Calfpasture. A monument stands over his
grave in Indiana giving his services in that famous expedition. Col-
onels Robert and John McFarland, early pioneers of Jefferson coun-
ty, Tennesse, are descendants of Duncan McFarland, as was also
William McFarland, a congressman from that state.
THE MINERAL SPRINGS
(ISTILLED water is chemically pure, but is tasteless and
therefore insipid. The "pure, cool spring water" we hear
about is pure only with respect to its harmlessness. After
y the water from the clouds has had time to soak through
the ground it has become charged with various mineral ingredients, and
is thereby rendered palatable. Water that has been much in contact
with limestone or calcareous earth is called "hard." If, on the other
hand, there had been a filtering through deposits containing little lime,
we call the water "soft." But when ground water is unfit to drink, it
is rarely because of the minerals it has taken up. The harmfulness
is usually due to organic matter, either of vegetable or animal tissue.
But while the water from wells and springs is mineral water in
the strict sense of the term, it is customary to regard as mineral waters
only those which have distinct medicinal effect. The character of
such waters varies with the chemical composition of the rock and earth
from which they issue. Beds of slate often contain the bright yellow
particles known as iron pyrites, or "fool's gold." The yellow color
is due to the sulphur in the pyrites. On exposure to the air, these par-
ticles decompose into the sulphates of iron and alumina, and give
rise to springs of alum, sulphur, or chalybeate waters. The valley
of the Cowpasture abounds in slate formations, and hence the mineral
springs, particularly of alum and sulphur waters, which there occur.
The mineral springs of the Cowpasture are cool, while those of
Warm Springs valley are warm. This difference is because of the
geological structure of that valley.
In the very deepest mines the temperature is so constantly and op-
pressively hot that rlic miners tan work only in short shifts and with
very little clothing. We can thus understand that if surface waters
sink to very great depths, and thus come well within the influnece of
the internal heat of the earth, they reappear with much higher tem-
perature than are found in ordinary springs. They are also more
heavily loaded with mineral, because heated water has a greater dis-
solving power than cold water, and is more energetic in absorbing
THE MINERAL SPRINGS 43
gases from the rocks through which it forces its way. The chemical
action of this process tends to further increase the heat of the water.
Let us suppose that a section of pipe is bent into two arms of un-
equal length, and then placed in a vertical position, the elbow being
embedded in redhot coals. If water is steadily poured into the upper
arm, it will as steadily come out of the lower opening because water
seeks to maintain a level. But it will issue at a higher temperature,
because of the coals. This illustration will help to explain the ther-
mal springs of Bath County. The Warm Springs Valley has the form
of a canoe, but the mountain wall on the east is higher than the one
on the west. It is also significant that all the thermal springs lie on
the western side of the valley. In the first chapter of this book it
was observed that the basin within this mountain rampart is largely
occupied by an oval-shaped area of very early geologic origin. Sur-
rounding this rock formation, and appearing next the surface as an oval
ring, is a more recent stratum. If, now, this last-named deposit pass-
ed underneath the other, and to a great depth, and if it were imper-
vious to water, we would have a very easy explanation of the heated
waters. However, the rock strata in this valley-floor are convex and
not concave. Nevertheless, the rainwater falling on the sharp western
slope of Warm Springs Mountain and reappearing as warm mineral
water in the depression below, behaves in about the same manner as
the water which in our illustration is poured into the upper end of
the bent tube.
The several springs differ in temperature, and this would indicate
that their waters do not rise from an equal depth. It is also worthv
of notice that the basin is cross-sectioned into sub-valleys, each, with
one exception, having a thermal spring of its own. Each spring, or
group of springs, lies near the upper entrance to a watergap in Valley
Mountain. And as the mineral elements in the several springs dif-
fer in number and also in proportion, it would indicate that the rock
structure below the suface is not uniform.
Lying mostly in Highland, but crossing into the northern confine
of Bath is another canoe-shaped basin drained by Bolar Run. It pre-
sents the same peculiarities as Warm Springs Valley, and has a group
of thermal springs lving a little above its solitary watergap.
Certain plants have medicinal qualities of one kind or another.
To supplement them, certain mineral springs have great curative pow-
44 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
ers, by reason of the gases and the solid ingredients which their waters
hold in solution. And as it is an error of judgment to use any vege-
table drug in a random manner, it is no less an error to use a given
mineral water without regard to expert knowledge of its effects on the
human svstem. The various springs of these two valleys differ in
their healing qualities, one reaching one class of ailments, and anoth-
er reaching to a certain extent a different class. The peculiarities of
the individual patient are also to be taken into account.
The Hot Springs of Bath are primarily a group of six flowing
fountains of great volume. The leading one has a temperature of
106 degrees and contains of mineral salts 43 grains to the gallon. The
minerals held in solution are mainly calcium, magnesium, sodium, and
potassium. Calcium, which is the basis of lime, is by far the most im-
portant. The large proportion of it in all the springs of this valley is
indeed what we might expect, since the entire floor of this basin con-
sists of limestone strata. The Hot Springs also contain sulphuric and
carbonic acids, and chlorine. These make various combinations with
the four minerals already named. The waters are particularly bene-
ficial in rheumatic ailments. They are also useful in nervous and dys-
peptic disorders, and in liver, kidney, and female diseases. There are
springs of soda, sulphur, and magnesia waters close by, and alum
waters at a little greater distance. The magnesia water, issuing at a
temperature of 100 degrees, acts as a mild alterative. The soda wat-
ers, which have a temperature of 74 degrees, are serviceable in urinary
complaints. The alum water is an excellent tonic and a mild yet cer-
tain astringent. The very great depth from which all these springs
rise, and the force with which they come to the surface, render them
free from organic impurities. Otherwise, their medicinal value would
be impaired, and they would be unfit for bottling.
The Warm Springs, five miles northeast of the Hot Springs, have
a temperature of 98 degrees and an outflow of 1200 gallons a minute.
To style them warm rather than hot is incorrect. In temperature
they are of the same class as the Hot Springs, and they contain a lar-
ger variety of mineral elements. The principal ones which do not
appear to be found in the other are carbonate of iron, sodium sulphate,
and silicic acid. Taken as a beverage, the water is tonic, aperient, and
diuretic. It is useful in nearly the same class of ailments as the waters
of the Hot Springs, and is very advantageous in dyspepsia.
THE MINERAL SPRINGS 45
The Healing Springs are about three miles southward from the
Hot Springs. They are likewise of strong volume and their tem-
perature is 84 degrees. They are more varied in composition than
the Hot Springs. They may be said to possess about the same ele-
ments that occur in the Warm Springs, but in differing proportions.
A few ingredients do not appear to be found at either of the other
places. As the name would indicate, these waters constitute a power-
ful healing agent, and are bottled in large quantities. They are very
good in affections of the skin, but are also used in rheumatism, in
bronchial complaints, and in disorders of the urinary and digestive or-
gans. 1 . ! j
The Rubino Spring lies within a mile of the Healing Springs
and is of the same character.
Bolar Spring in Great Valley has a temperature of 74 degrees and
an outflow of 1600 gallons a minute. Like the other thermal waters,
it is highly charged with gases. Iodine and arsenic are present, but
there has been no complete analysis. Taken internally, the water is
diuretic and alterative, and mildly aperient. Taken externally, it
enjoys much repute in ailments of the skin and in nasal catarrh. One
mile noithward is the Burns Spring, 79 degrees warm and somewhat
stronger in mineral qualities though of the same general nature.
In the valley of the Cowpasture the best known of its mineral
waters are the sulphur fountains at Millboro Springs and All Healing
Springs, and the alum waters of Bath Alum and Wallawhatoola.
The red men of America have a natural aptitude for the healing
art. That the thermal waters of Bath had been known to them from
time immemorial may be taken for granted. An attractive legend,
published in 1838 in the Southern Literary Messenger, relates that a
young brave was making his first journey across the Alleghanies in
order to carry a message from his powerful tribe to the council fire
kindling on the shore of the Great Water. The shades of night over-
took him in Warm Springs Valley. The darkness was profund, and
the wind was moaning dismally among the tree-tops. On the sodden
ground he could find no comfortable place to sleep, and he was too
weary to climb the mountain lying across his path. But continuing
to search, he came upon an opening in a laurel thicket. Here was a
pool in which he could see the reflection of the evening star. The
waters were so clear that the pebbly bottom could be made out. The
46 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
warm vapor that rose to his nostrils tempted him into the pool so that
he might bathe his aching limbs. To his surprise and delight the
temperature was of blood warmth. By the strong current issuing
from the basin, he knew he had found a spring. He laid himself
down, and the Spirit of Strength gave him new life and hope. At
dawn the Young Panther strode with easy step up the bold mountain
wall. At the council fire on the eve of that day, no other warrior was
more graceful in address, more commanding in manner, or more sa-
gacious in council.
But this legend of a poetic race, seemingly adapted to the time of
arrival of the first English settlers, is not to be taken as a precise
fact of history. It is an expression in symbolic form of the virtues
of these health-giving waters, as they had been experienced during
centuries upon centuries by the wild men of the forest.
A family tradition relates that Andrew Lewis came accidentally
upon the Hot Springs while escaping from hostile Indians. On the
other hand, it is alleged that a knowledge of them had been carried
to the capital of Virginia before the expedition under Spottswood in
1716. That white explorers were told of these thermal waters by
the Indians is very probable. Be this as it may, Lewis was very mat-
ter of fact, and seems to have been more deeply impressed with the
limestone lands of Warm Springs Valley than with the hygienic value
of its remarkable fountains.
In 1750, which was during the early infancy of the settlement of
Bath, the springs were already well known. Thomas Walker, on his
return from a prospecting tour into the southwest extremity of Vir-
ginia, makes this entry in his journal, the date being July 9, 1750:
"We went to the hot Springs and found Six Invalides there. The
Spring Water is very Clear & Warmer than new Milk, an there is a
Spring of cold Water within 20 feet of the Warm one."
Between 1763 and 1767, Andrew Lewis surveyed in his own
name 884 acres in Warm Springs Valley. Meanwhile, Thomas
Bullitt, a fellow soldier who in one instance acted in partnership with
Lewis, surveyed 1120 acres. These tracts do not include the lands
they surveyed along the course of Falling Springs Run. No more
surveys are recorded for quite a while, for the evident reason that
Lewis, Bullitt, and Dickenson had taken the cream of the agricultural
THE MINERAL SPRINGS 47
lands in the valley. It is to be noted that the entry of a tract of pub-
lic land usually took place some years before the actual survey.
The Lewises reduced to patent 1886 acres, and Bullitt 1248.
Gabriel Jones is credited with 720 acres and John Dickenson with
250. And as in the case of the surveys, these patents do not include
the tracts on the upper course of Falling Springs Run. Thus a few
influential non-residents monopolized the valley.
A patent of 1764, calling for 300 acres, and including the Hot
Springs, was taken by Thomas Bullitt and Andrew and Thomas
Lewis. These men entered into an agreement to build a hotel and
stock it with the distilled and fermented liquors which in their day
as in ours were deemed by many persons to be superior to the bever-
age prepared by Dame Nature. So far as the Lewises were con-
cerned this plan was not carried out. They made an arrangement
with Bullitt whereby access to the springs was secured to each party.
Bullitt erected a hotel about 1764, portions of which remained until
destroyed, together with a newer building, in the fire of 1901. In
1790, Bullitt authorized John Oliver to grant twenty-year leases on
his lands in Warm Springs Valley. But the Hot Springs tract was
excepted, and so was another supposed to contain an undeveloped
As early a 1778, Cuthbert Bullitt, then a resident of this valley,
petitioned the assembly that 50 acres of his land be laid off into lots
and a town established at "Little Warm Springs," this being the
early name for the Hot Springs. He remarks that it was extremely
difficult to procure building materials.
In 1793 the owners of this property were Nathaniel Wilkenson,
John Littlepage, and John Oliver. They petitioned the Assembly,
under the date of October 23, "That they have laid off a town of
one hundred half-acre Lotts with convenient Streets on this land at
Hot Springs in the County of Bath, and that the benefit of those
Waters (especially Scorbutick and Rheumatick Complaints) may be
enjoyed by all who may have occasion to visit those springs, they
pray the said Town may be established by an act to be passed for
The Act was at once passed. The trustees named in the charter
were Sampson Mathews, Samuel Vance, Thomas Hughart, Charles
Cameron, George Poage, John Montgomery, John White, John
48 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Lewis, John Bollar, Anthony Mustoe, and Samuel Shrewsbury.
They were authorized to make such rules and orders concerning the
building of houses as they might think best. They were also em-
powered to settle all disputes relating to the boundaries of lots.
Whenever the purchaser of a lot had built a house at least 16 feet
square, and provided it with a chimney of brick or stone, he was to
be entitled to all the rights and privileges which were enjoyed by
the freehold inhabitants of unincorporated towns.
The lot drawing was held in Staunton, July 14, 1794. William
Forbes who drew ticket 51, purchased a one-half acre lot at "Hott
Bath" for 10 pounds ($33.33).
In 1820 the mail came only three times a week to the resorts in
this valley, and the ordinary postage was \SH cents.
But as a resort for health or pleasure, Hot Springs languished un-
til the hotel was purchased in 1832 by Doctor Thomas Goode. Un-
der his regime the hotel was 200 feet long and two stories high. It
was well filled during the summer season, because the resort was
now swiftly coming into a wide-reaching repute. In the summer
of 1838, Hot Springs and the other resorts within a radius of 40
miles were visited by about 6000 people. The guests had to come by
stage coach or private conveyance. To arrive from Philadelphia in
four days, the traveler had to make prompt connections among the
various stage lines, and to submit to being jolted in a coach for 16
hours a day. And yet from the far more distant lowlands of the
Gulf States came many cotton planters and their families. It is
hardly necessary to add that no such journeys could be made by weak
P. H. Nicklin, writing of Hot Springs in 1835, says that "at
first sight, appearances do not invite a long sojourn." He speaks of
the old frame hotel and bath houses and several rows of cabins.
But the table fare was very good, and "the scenery grows into your
affection the deeper the longer you remain."
Doctor Goode died in 1858 and there were more changes in own-
ership. Finally, in 1890, the Virginia Hot Springs Company came
into control. This corporation also acquired title to the Warm and
the Healing Springs.
The tract of 140 acres which includes the Warm Springs was sur-
veyed in 1751 for John Lewis, Sr., and John Lewis, Jr. The younger
THE MINERAL SPRINGS 49
John settled on the land, dying here in 1788. The same year he sold
to William Bowyer of Staunton two one-half acre lots for $200,
these being on "a line with the large dwelling house and store house
In the summer of 1781, the Virginia Assembly, which had ad-
journed from Charlottesville to Staunton, voted to adjourn again to
Warm Springs, and thus would have made this hamlet a third tem-
porary state capital, had the British cavalry made good their threat-
ened raid into the Shenandoah Valley. A writer of 1792 remarks
that it lay "on a great leading road from Richmond to the Illinois
and Kentucky and several of the western countys" ; that it was
the "numerous resort of all ranks of people." But he adds that the
real estate was owned by minors, and that rent was under such re-
strictions as nearly to forbid population.
Enjoying the prestige of being the county seat, Warm Springs
was, during the stage-coach era, as widely and favorably known as
its nearby rival. In fact, Hot Springs is sometimes mentioned in the
early surveys as Little Warm Springs. Prior to the purchase of the
springs and hotel by the corporation which also controls the other
resorts of the valley, the owner was the late Colonel John L. Eubank,
secretary of the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861.
Healing Springs, like the "Hot" and the "Warm," as the others
are popularly known in the county, has attracted to its neighborhood
a considerable village. But in a social point of view this resort is
much less conspicuous. Until about 1850 it was quite undeveloped.
Five miles east of Warm Springs, and a little beyond the foot of
the intervening mountain, is Bath Alum. During the many years
when the pike leading toward Staunton was the only entrance to
Bath from the east, Bath Alum was a well known summer resort.
But no village grew up around it, and the brick hotel was at length
closed by an owner who was indifferent to the tourist business. It is
now unvisited and stands in quiet loneliness amid fields and forests.
The hotel at Millboro Springs was opened by John U. Dicken-
son a few years before the war of 1861, and being within three miles
of a railroad station, it enjoys a good patronage. Wallawhatoola
Spring, a mile down the Cowpasture, is a private resort only. Nim-
rod Hall, three miles still farther below, is without the adjunct of an
important mineral spring. Panther Spring in Panther Gap is con-
50 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
trolled by the Alleghany Inn, at Goshen. All Healing Spring, at
the south end of Shenandoah Mountain, is little developed as a re-
The hotels of Warm Spring Valley heavily preponderate in draw-
ing visitors to Bath. As a field for health and pleasure, this upland
is exceptionally favored. In the matter of climate it has advantages
over the outside portion of the county. The towering mountain
wall shields it from storms. The several watergaps on the west
side, the absence of any stream coursing lengthwise through the val-
ley, and the considerable elevation of its floor above the level of Jack-
son's River, combine to exempt this locality from the morning fogs
which hover over the river bottoms during the warm season. In conse-
quence the air is more than usually dry for a mountain valley, and
even in the winter season many a day is mild and sunny.
General David H. Strother*, better known as Porte Crayon,
speaks of "the matchless gift of beauty with which Heaven has en-
dowed this happy region, its beautiful and invigorating atmosphere,
its abundance even to superfluity in all the good things that make it a
desirable residence for man. It is a picture, soft and luxuriant, of
rolling plains and rich woodlands, watered by crystal streams, en-
riched with rare and curious gems wrought by the plastic hand of
Nature, all superbly set in an azure frame of mountains, beautiful al-
ways, and sometimes rising into sublimity."
In 1856, the three leading resorts in Bath paid the following in
license fees: Warm Springs, $114.59; Hot Springs, $100.84; Bath
The corporation now owning the resorts has at a large outlay sup-
plemented the advantages bestowed by nature. Among the improv-
ments is first the railroad spur of 25 miles which connects Hot Springs
with the main line of the Chesapeake & Ohio at Covington. The
present very modern hotel, with accommodations for 700 guests, more
than equals the combined capacity of the hostelries at Warm Springs
and Healing Springs. Roadways totalling 15 miles are owned and
controlled by the management. A large share of this mileage is
macadamized. Bridle-paths and foot-paths have been cut through
the woods to the mountain summits on either side, particularly to Flag
Rock on Warm Springs Mountain.
•Nephew to Doctor Archer P. Strother, a highly respected citizen who
lived between Hot Springs and Warm Springs and died in 1856.
EARLY POLITICAL HISTORY
jHE pioneer history of the Bath area starts with the be-
ginning of white settlement about 1745, and comes to
a close with the organization of the county in 1791. By
the end of the half-century the region had become well
populated, according to the standard which then and for many years
later prevailed in the Southland.
But not until after Bath had become a county was there any
group of houses large enough to be termed a village. There were
a few stores and gristmills, and a few dwelling houses were licensed
as taverns. Only in one instance was there a sufficient nucleus to be
called a hamlet. This exception was Warm Springs. At Hot
Springs there could have been no more than a primitive hotel with
its accessory buildings.
The earliest tavern licenses we know of were those granted to
George Wilson in 1758, to James Ward in 1759, and to John Dick-
enson in 1763. The rates which the tavern-keeper might not exceed
were minutely prescribed by the county court, and had to be posted in
the public room. By a ruling of the court of Botetourt in 1775, the
charge for a "warm diet with good meat" was one shilling, or 16 2-3
cents. For a cold meal it was 10^4 cents. If the guest slept alone,
his lodging cost him half a shilling. If two or more slept in the
same bed, the charge to each was a third of a shilling. Pasturage or
hay for 24 hours cost 10H cents. All hostelries kept intoxicants in
variety, and the drinking habit must have been very general. The
charge at this time for rum, whiskey, or peach brandy was one dollar
a gallon. For three pints of toddy made with half a pint of rum and
"single refined sugar" the charge was 21 cents. The books of Wil-
liam Crow, who was a merchant of Staunton in 1760-70, show few
very long accounts, yet scarcely a day passed without several charges
for drinks. A petition of 1754 condemns the selling by ordinaries of
large quantities of liquor at extravagant rates, whereby money is
drained out of the country. The signers express their intention of
making their own liquor so as to keep their money in the home neigh-
52 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
borhood. Among the 91 signers who "felt the smart" of this state of
things were Archibald Armstrong, John Allen, Joseph Bell, John Car-
lile, James Gay, Matthew Harper, James Knox, James Montgomery,
Loftus Pullin, and James Scott.
The first definite mention of a store is that of Sampson and George
Mathews at Cloverdale. It was built about 1775. The first store
we read of at Warm Springs was that of White, Kirk and Company
in 1787. Until local stores, began to appear, the merchants of Staun-
ton had a monopoly of the Bath trade, except so far as they had to
compete with traveling pedlers. This competition must have been
considerable. The pedler went everywhere and was a welcome visi-
The earliest mill license seems to be the one issued to Adam Dick-
enson February 12, 1747. It must have been a new mill that was built
on the Dickenson plantation by William Hamilton about 1763. In
that year the labor that had been put into the new building was pro-
nounced by David Davis and Samuel Vance as worth four pounds
cash, or $13.33. The Hamilton mill was doubtless to replace one
burned by the Indians. The second mill license is that in favor of
George Wilson in August, 1747. In 1750 John Justice built for
William Wilson on Bolar Run a tubmill at the contract price of $20.
It was to have been completed by May 1, but the builder was much
behind time. Wilson sued for 20 pounds damages, and Patrick Mar-
tin, William Hamilton, and David Davis, ordered by the court to
view the mill, reported it insufficient. In the spring of 1753 John
McCreery put in a mill on the Cowpasture, just below Ebbing Spring.
The first mention of a sawmill is in 1761. The owner was George
Wilson, and the site is probably on the upper course of Stuart's Creek.
Until 1852, the county court in Virginia was a close corporation
and had extensive powers. For a long time there was no higher tri-
bunal than the Governor's Council, a body corresponding to the
present state senate. When a new county was created, its justices
were nominated by the court of the parent county. Whenever a
county court was to be enlarged, or when vacancies were to be filled,
the court made its own nominations. In either case, the nominations
were passed upon by the governor and the appointments were made
by him. He also chose the sheriff and the commissioned officers of the
militia from the men nominated by the court. But it was the court
EARLY POLITICAL HISTORY 53
itself that appointed the county clerk, the constables, and the over-
seers of the roads. It passed judgment on all offenses except felonies
and high treason, and in the case of such criminals as were negro slaves
it could decree the death penalty and order the sheriff to execute it.
Under British rule the highest county official was the county lieu-
tenant. He was a sort of deputy governor, and when the militia
were called out he held the rank of colonel. The coroner was a con-
servator of the peace, and his office was much more important than
it is now.
There was a property qualification for voters, and a considerable
number of men were thus deprived of the use of the elective franchise.
Yet the only dignitaries the colonial voter had a regular opportunity
to elect were members of the House of Burgesses. Until 1776 the
governor was sent from England under appointment by the British
crown, and he acted as its personal representative. His salary was
large and it was paid by the colony. He lived in much pomp and
wielded a great influence. At the close of his term he usually re-
turned to Britain.
Until local government was organized in Augusta, which was not
until the close of 1745, its settlers had to go to Orange to attend court,
a distance from Fort Lewis of over 100 miles. The first justices
from its own territory were John Lewis and James Patron. The
former seems to have been commissioned in 1739. There was no res-
ident justice in the Bath area until Adam Dickenson was appointed in
1745. John Dickenson was chosen in 1756. Whether the William
Wilson who was serving in the same year was the man of that name
living on Jackson's River, we cannot determine. Charles Lewis was
appointed in 1763, but declined to serve. Jacob Warwick was on the
court in 1778, and John McCreery, Jr., in 1781, but in the year fol-
lowing both these men declined further service because of the distance
to the courthouse.
The first local coroner we read of was John McCreery, Jr., who
was serving in 1779. The first constable was James Mayse, ap-
pointed by Orange, February 28, 1745. The June court of the same
year ordered him to qualify at its next meeting. Wallace Estill and
James Hughart succeeded Mayse in 1747. Later constables whom
we can identify as belonging to Greater Bath were these:
54 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Ralph Laverty — 1748 Thomas Thompson — 1763
Archibald Elliott— 1749 Alexander Black— 1763
James Stuart — 1751 Thomas Cartmill — 1767
William Daugherty— 1752 Joseph McClung— 1763
Henry Gay— 1753 Richard Mayse— 1768
John Byrd— 1755 Thomas Wright— 1770
James Bourland — 1756 Andrew Hamilton — 1770
Andrew Muldrock — 1756 Andrew McCausland — 1780
Wright and Hamilton were appointed by the Botetourt court.
Both represented Jackson's River, the former from that section of the
valley above the "bent."
Another close corporation within each county was the vestry. It
had charge of the local interests of the Church of England. This
was the established church in Virginia and was supported by public
taxation. The taxes for this purpose were levied by the vestry, which
had also the care of the poor, and it bound out the children of illegiti-
mate birth. When a new county was formed, the members of its
first vestry were chosen by the qualified voters. But with a curious in-
consistency, the board was thenceforward self-perpetuating. It filled
its own vacancies and was a close corporation like the county court.
The executive officers of the vestry were the two church-wardens
chosen from its own membership.
The laws were harsh, although a lax administration of severe
laws was often winked at. Under British rule, Virginia recognized
27 offenses as punishable by death. Imprisonment for debt contin-
ued until the middle of the nineteenth century. Lashes at the public
whipping-post, on the bare back and "well laid on," were frequently
ordered, 39 being the limit at any one time. Women were thus
punished as well as men.
The first lawsuit pertaining to the Bath area and recorded in
Augusta, was that of Adam Dickenson against John Potts, called
February 11,1 746. A gray mare was ordered sold to satisfy a debt
of five pounds ($16.67).
Until 1769 the county of Augusta had for its eastern boundary
the crest of the Blue Ridge from the Tennessee line to a point nearly
east of Port Republic. Westward it was understood as extending
tar enough to cover all the territory in that direction that was claim-
ed by Virginia. Hut in practical sense, the actual county was never
larger than the area that was occupied. As population extended
EARLY POLITICAL HISTORY 55
the real county grew in size. After it had become unwieldy it was
subdivided. The first curtailment was in 1769, when Botetourt
was authorized. The line between the old county and the new ran
in a southeast and northwest direction, crossing the present county
of Bath in the vicinity of Dunn's Gap between Hot Springs and
Warm Springs. The Cowpasture was crossed at the Donally farm
and Jackson's River at the John Davis place. James Trimble sur-
veyed this line in 1770, so far as it lay between the Blue Ridge and
the Alleghany Front. To reimburse him for the fees and expenses
the court of Botetourt voted $53.88. Four years later the same
court ordered that application be made to Augusta to have the line
extended to the Ohio River. It does not appear that this was ever
carried into effect.
During 21 years the south of Bath and all of Alleghany lay under
the jurisdiction of Botetourt. Until after 1776, however, there is
no mention of justices or grandjurors from the Bath area. In 1770
William Christian was directed to list the tithables on "James River
and the Pastures from the mouth of Craig up to and including the
Greenbrier settlement." Three years later Matthew Arbuckle took
the list from the mouth of Craig up the James and Cowpasture to
the county line, and up Jackson's River to William Hughart's. The
rest of Jackson's River was assigned to John Robinson. In 1775,
Richard Mayse had Arbuckle's district enlarged by being extended to
Sweet Springs. The next official was William McClenahan, whose
district comprised Arbuckle's and Robinson's.
In 1772 Botetourt had 2202 tithables. Perhaps less than one-
eighth of these were in the space now included in Bath, Alleghany,
Greenbrier, and Monroe. For her first county buildings the sum
of $1280 was voted. In 1772 Richard Mayse was appointed to look
after putting up an office building for the use of the court. In 1770,
169 wolf-heads were brought in, the bounty being $5.00 for a grown
animal and $2.50 for a cub.
ROADS AND ROAD BUILDERS
!HEN this county became known to the whites it had no
settled native population. It does not follow that such
had always been the case. The probability is that it had
at some time been inhabited. Be this as it may, Indian
paths followed the valleys and crossed the ridges. These trails cer-
tainly existed but are now forgotten. The settler was quick to use
them whenever they could serve his purpose. Some portions of the
aboriginal highways may still exist in the form of county roads. In
fact the Indian road was sometimes broad enough to admit a wagon,
and often it was deep on account of long continued use. A stream
w T as ordinarily crossed at the mouth of a branch, because a bar will
occur at such a place.
The buffalo was also a maker of paths. This animal lives in
herds, and when the grazing gives out at one place, the whole herd
moves to another, taking a very straight course. There is no doubt
that the Indian appropriated some of the buffalo paths for his own
use. At first sight, it would look as though the buffalo and not the
Indian was the first road-builder in Bath. The contrary is almost
certainly the case. The buffalo lived only in open, grassy country,
and never in the dense forest. The whole Alleghany country is by
nature an unbroken forest. The large expanses of open ground
seen by the early explorers were caused by the Indians, so as to de-
velop an ample supply of large game. So the buffalo herds crept
farther and farther eastward from their native western plains, and
as a consequence the mound-building ancestors of the historic Indian
tribes fell away from their agricultural habits.
A remnant of a buffalo trail is said to be still visible on a Cow-
pasture bluff, about a mile northward from the crossing of the Har-
risonburg and Warm Springs turnpike, and on the east side of the
The roads of the early period of white settlement were rough
and ready affairs. With a small population, and but little money
passing from hand to hand, it was out of the question to build what
ROADS AND ROAD BUILDERS 57
we would now consider a good highway. The pioneer acted quite
literally on the belief that a straight line is the shortest distance be-
tween two points. He was more inclined to go directly over a ridge
than to wind through a hollow, and there contend with side-cutting,
laurel thickets, and ledges of rock. He had no time for grading,
and a road through a narrow pass offered too good an opportunity
for Indians to lay in ambush. But the woods had less underbrush
than now, and it was comparatively easy to open a tolerable wagon
way. As for bridges, it was seldom that they were seriously thought
The earliest roads were used almost wholly as bridle-paths, the
usual mode of travel being horseback and the packsaddle being the
usual mode of transporting goods. Nevertheless, there was now and
then a pioneer, even among the earliest, who had a wagon, and the
more important roads had to be wide enough to permit a vehicle to
be used. Wherever the road forked, the colonial law required an
index to be set up for the information of the traveler. Crude,
stumpy, rocky, and innocent of grading as the first roads must have
been, the public opinion of the day required a certain standard of
excellence. Many a road overseer was presented by the grand jury
for failing to keep his road in order.
Two classes of highways received very early attention. A road
was needed along each river, for it was directly upon the water-
courses that almost all the early comers located. In these valleys
were the forts for their protection and the indipensable gristmills.
Other roads ran over the mountains, or if possible, around them, so
as to reach the neighboring valleys. The most important of such
roads were those leading toward the courthouse, which was the
chief commercial point for a wide radius.
Thus it is easy to see why the first road leading to the Cowpas-
ture should come from Staunton, and that it should pass around the
end of Shenandoah Mountain. That it should strike the Cowpas-
ture at Fort Lewis is because here was the choicest of the surveys
taken by the influential Lewis family. So it was ordered by the
court of Augusta, May 12, 1746, that "a road be laid off and marked
from the great lick in the Cow Pasture adjoining Col. Lewis Land
to Andrew Hamilton in the Calf Pasture, and that Andrew Lewis
and George Lewis mark out and lay off the same and make report to
the next court."
58 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Two years later there was an order for a road from Jackson's
River to the above mentioned land of Colonel Lewis on the Cowpas-
tur, William Jackson being apponted to lay off the same. A year
later still, the matter was again taken up, for we find the court re-
iterating its order, May 18, 1749. William Jackson and James
Mayse were appointed overseers, the latter taking the portion of
road "already marked" from the Fort Lewis survey to William Ham-
ilton's on the Cowpasture. All the tithables on the Cowpasture
above James Hughart's were ordered to turn out and build the high-
Meanwhile, the Dickenson settlement was moving for an outlet.
A petition by Adam Dickenson, for a road from the "lower end of
the Cowpasture to Carter's mill" on the Calfpasture was rejected in
February, 1748, but granted a month later. The signers were John
Cartmill, Hugh Coffey, Adam Dickenson, John Donally, William
Daugherty, William Gillespie, James Mayse, William Hugh ( ?)
Ralph Laverty, Alexander Millroy, James McCay, John Mitchell,
John Moore, Andrew Muldrock, James Scott, James Simpson, and
James Stuart. These people were living above and below Fort
Dickenson, and on Stuart's Creek. Whether this road was to go
through "Painter's Gap" is not clear. We do not find definite
mention of that passage in road orders until 1762.
In 1748, also, a view was ordered from Peter Wright's to Adam
Dickenson's. Wright lived where Covington now stands. An or-
der of 1751 calls for a road from Wright's mill to the Cowpasture
near Hughart or Knox. This would bring it up the river to the
vicinity of the bridge on the Harrisonburg pike. The work was en-
trusted to Adam Dickenson, David Davis, Peter Wright and Joseph
Carpenter. On the same date, a road, apparently below the Rath
line, was ordered from the Cowpasture to Borden's grant. The
builders designated were James Frame, William Gillespie, Hugh Mc-
Donald, Robert and James Montgomery, William McMurray,
James and John Scott, and James Simpson.
Just a year later, a petition by Cowpasture settlers led to an order
for another eastward road. This was to go from "Patrick Davis to
the road leading to Beverly's big meadows." Adam Dickenson was
to lay off the precincts for the two overseers, John Dickenson and
ROADS AND ROAD BUILDERS 59
By this time the dwellers on the Cowpasture were quite well ac-
commodated with roads. During the next ten years there was a
slowing up in road-building throughout the Bath area, largely a re-
sult of the long war with the Indians. In 1762, Ralph Laverty,
James McCay, and John Dickenson were to view a route from
Davis's to Dickenson's. The same year, Laverty and James Gay
were to survey a road through Panther Gap to Dickenson's. It is
in 1763 that we find the first mention of a public road to Warm
Springs. The other terminus was Walker's place on the Cowpas-
ture. The overseers were Thomas Feamster, from Walker's to
Charles Lewis's, and John Lewis, from the latter point to Warm
In 1766, William Gillespie and James Beard were overseers for
a road down the river from Dickenson's to a point eight miles from
"Pedlar foard." John Dickenson and William Hughart were to
divide their precincts. A year earlier there was an order for a road
from Estill's mill (now McClung's) on the Bullpasture to the
George Lewis place on the Cowpasture. The overseers were Wil-
liam Black, John Hicklin, and John Estill. But in 1767 a petition
for a road over a part of this same course was rejected. The 18
petitioners, all or almost all of whom lived on the Bullpasture, asked
for a road from John Hicklin's to Feamster's mill. In the same
year, however, a view was ordered from William Wilson's mill on
Bolar Run "into the New Laved out Road at the foot of the Bull
Pastures and thence into the Branch near Feamster's." The peti-
tioners were Robert Bratton, Robert Barnett, John Davis, David
Frame, William Given, Ralph and William Laverty, Thomas Lewis,
Duncan and Alexander McFarland, George^ Skillern, and Stephen
Wilson. Skillern was a non-resident land-holder.
We have seen that the first mention of an authorized road to
Warm Springs is in 1763. But in both English and French maps of
1755, a road is drawn all the way to the Hot Springs from the mouth
of the South Branch of the Potomac. Its course inside the Bath
area begins near the mouth of the Bullpasture. In 1769 a view was
ordered from "Little Warm (Hot) Springs" to the forks of the road
on Dunlap Creek. The viewers were Robert Armstrong and John
Bollar. For a time wagons were unloaded at the east foot of Warm
Springs Mountain where Brinkley's tavern was afterward built.
60 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Goods could be moved farther west only by packsaddle. Until after
1774 there was no wagon route beyond Warm Springs. But in
1779, and probably as early as 1774, there were mileposts all the
way to this point from Staunton.
The Revolution, with its domestic turmoil, high taxation, and
depreciated paper money, was not favorable to the building of new
roads or the improvement of old ones. In 1785 Robert McCreery,
William Dickey, and Patrick Miller were delegated to view a road
from Feamster's mill to the Bullpasture ford next above John Mont-
gomery. This would locate the ford at Williamsville. In 1790 a
road was established from Ralph Laverty's to Thompson's mill by
way of Windy Cove. To build it the tithables were summoned
from Thomas Thompson's to Patrick Davis's, and the call included
those on Jackson's River who lived within convenient reach.
In 1770 the first county court of Botetourt named and described
39 road precincts. One of these lay partly in the Bath area, and its
first overseer was James Montgomery. In 1772 the court of Bote-
tourt ordered Peter Wright and Robert Armstrong to survey a road
from Wright's to Sweet Springs.
We have now given all we know as to the steps taken to build
public roads within the present limits of Bath and previous to its
organization. The reader has already noticed that an order by the
county court was not always promptly followed by actual construc-
We next mention the road overseers under Augusta, and also
their precincts, where the latter are described:
James Mayse — 1748.
Ralph Laverty— 1753.
John Dickenson — 1754.
William Gillespie — 1765— Pedler Ford to Dickenson's.
John Miller vice Loftus Pullin — 1767 — Estill's to Feamster's.
John McCreery — 1768 — from Charles Lewis' to where the Dickenson
road joins the Staunton and Warm Springs road.
John Hamilton — 1768 — Warm Spi ings to forks of road leading to John
John Dean — 1769 — same precinct as Hamilton's.
Charles Donally and John McCreery — 1769.
John Byrd vice John Lewis — 1773 — Cowpasture to Warm Springs.
William Black and George Rratton — 1777.
David Frame — 1778 — from Frame's to William Black's and from Fort
ROADS AND ROAD BUILDERS 61
Lewis to Colonel Mathews' on the Calfpasture. Next year, his precinct
is "from the forks of the road leading to Warm Springs and Cowpasture,
and to the new store."
Stephen Wilson — 1778 — John Wilson's to Warm Springs, and from Wil-
liam Wilson's to the Bullpasture road over the mountain.
John Oliver — 1780 — Warm Springs to Cowpasture.
Edward Thompson — 1780 — Cowpasture to Leonard Bell's.
Hugh Hicklin — 1780 — from the county (Botetourt) line to the school-
house on Indian Draft.
Charles Donally — 1780 — from the above named schoolhouse to Leonard
John Montgomery — 1781 — William Black's to David Frame's.
John Rucker — 1781 — Thomas Cartmill's to Samuel Vance's.
James Young — 1783 — Cloverdale to big hill above Andrew Hamilton's.
Osborn Hamilton vice Adam Blackman — 1786 — Samuel Vance's to Fort
Robert Kirk vice John Oliver — 1788 — Warm Springs to Cowpasture. Ja-
cob Warrick succeeded Kirk.
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS
JN NEARLY every instance, the parents of the early-
pioneer were born on the other side of the ocean, landed
at Philadelphia, and proceeded with little delay to the
settlements in Augusta. Occasionally, however, they
lived some years in Pennslyvania. The journey was by wagon. It
led through the towns of Lancaster and Frederick, across the Poto-
mac at Shepherd's Ferry, and up the Shenandoah Valley to Staunton
by what was at first an Indian trail. The route was styled the
"Pennsylvania Road." This side the Potomac it rather closely fol-
lowed the course of the present Valley Turnpike. From Staunton
they continued as best they could over rough paths to the Cowpasture
and Jackson's River.
Doctor Walker, writing in 1750, during the infancy of Bath set-
tlement, makes these entries in his diary:
"July 9 — Having a Path (from Hot Springs) We rode 20 miles and
lodged at Captain Jemysons below the Panther Gap. Two of my Company
went to a Smith to get their Horses Shod.
"July 11 — Our way mending We travelled 30 miles to Augusta Court
As a rule, men are slow to adopt a radical change in their manner
of living. After once choosing his piece of land in the wilderness,
the pioneer sought to feed, clothe, and house himself as he had done
in the native land. But Europe was an old country, comparatively
well peopled. America had only a few wild Indians, and the fron-
tier looked to the new comer as though it had never been peopled at
all. So the environment led to some departure from the old mode.
The modification was not hard to accept, because the plain ways of
the immigrants made them adaptable to new conditions. For exam-
ple, they had lived in stone dwellings. It was now more convenient
to build a log cabin. Indian corn was to them a new food and fodder
plant, yet it w as accepted at once. The potato, however, was not well
known in Scotland before 1760. A cradle could be made of peeled
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 63
The climate was found to be more sunny than the European,
but in general temperature not greatly different. The soil was un-
worn. Yet the small seaports of America were 200 miles away, and
in the intervening distance there was almost no town population what-
ever. Nearly every man was a producer and not a consumer 1 hese
were disadvantages, but the Ulstermen were bent on escaping the
vexations they had undergone in Ireland. In some instances the
settler brought with him a considerable stock of hard cash. But in
the wilderness itself there was no money, and there were few com-
modities which would bring money. All manufactured goods and
such necessities as salt and ammunition had to be brought from the
seacoast and were expensive. The pioneer was thus constrained to be
as independent as possible of the outside world.
Where there are handicaps on travel and trade, a frontier com-
munity tends to lag behind in the march of civilization. In some of
the more isolated valleys of Appalachian America the people still live
very much as their grandparents lived a century ago. It has been dif-
ferent in Bath, because this county lies on a natural line of travel.
But in the abundance of game there is a novelty. Walker remarks
that during his summer expedition to Cumberland Gap, his party kill-
ed 13 buffaloes, 53 bears, and about 150 turkeys, to say nothing of
other game, and could have killed three times as much if there had
been the need. Slumbering instincts, inherited from remote ancestors,
began at once to assert themselves. Some of the newcomers almost
literally took to the woods. They neglected the soil and made hunt-
ing a business. The skins they did not need as articles of clothing
could be sent to the seaports. The bounty on the destructive wolf
put some additional coin into their pockets. Nearly every pioneer
seems to have yielded in some degree to this "call of the wild."
On the other hand, it is a great error to assume that coonskin
caps and deerskin hunting shirts were generally worn in this region,
or that the pioneer lived within doors in almost as primitive a fashion
as the Indian himself. This was true of some persons, but it was not
the recognized standard of living. The dress suit of the person who
by the usage of the time was styled either a gentleman or a yeoman
was more elaborate than in our day. The colors were brighter and
more diversfiied. We read of green and plum colored broadcloths
and of bright red fabrics. George Wilson's coat was valued by him-
64 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
self at $13.33, and it would have taken two of his cows to pay for
it. James Burnside was charged $10 for three beaver hats. Wil-
liam Jackson lived on the verge of settlement, yet he wore a wig and
a stock and buckle. In presenting a bill of $1003.52 against his fa-
ther's estate, John Dickenson mentions broadcloth at $3 a yard, and
calico at 75 cents. A pair of silver knee buckles is listed at $3.33, a
lawn handkerchief at $1.25, a silk bonnet at $11.33, a set of silver
breeches buttons at $3.33, and a pair of men's stockings at 83 cents.
There was a tailor's bill in favor of James Stuart of $7.67. And
Adam Dickenson was the founder of the settlement on the lower Cow-
pasture. Robert Armstrong was a hunter, but wore silver buckles.
The statute of Andrew Lewis, at Richmond, represents that gener-
al as attired in hunting shirt and leggings. Such was not his ordinary
apparel, for he is known to have been particular in the matter of dress.
His brother, Charles, was equally particular and left a brown suit
inventoried at $50.
The person acquiring 100 or more acres in the Augusta colony
was usually a yeoman, his class constituting the backbone of British
society. Of the very much smaller class known as gentlemen, there
were very few among the Augustans, although a prominent man
would be given that title by courtesy. The gentleman, according to
the aristocratic meaning of the word, was a man who claimed that
his ancestors had never been serfs. He had a coat of arms and could
wear a sword.
In deeds and other documents it was customary, if the grantor or
grantee were a yeoman, to state the fact, or to name his occupation.
This was a means of defining his social standing. Bound white ser-
vants were numerous in Augusta. Some of these were orphans or of
illegitimate parentage. In the early days of the colony they were
chiefly young persons brought from Europe under indenture. To
pay their passage across the Atlantic they were sold into servitude for
the average term of five years. At the end of this time the servant
became free. But while his servitude continued, he was virtually
a slave. If he ran away and was retaken he was made to serve his
master an extra period, the length of which was proportioned to the
cost of recovery. Some of the servants made as good citizens as any
other people. Some others had a record as petty criminals, or were
of loose moral character. If, as frequently occurred, the wvman
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 65
servant had bastard children by another man than her master, hei
term of servitude was lengthened. But immoral behavior was not
confined to the servant class.
Until after the Indian war of 1754, negro slaves were very scarce
White male adults were enrolled in militia companies, of which
the commissioned officers were captains, lieutenants, and ensigns.
But the frontiersmen were little amenable to restraint, and only the
officer with a strong inborn power of leadership could control his
men. The day of general muster was the fourth Tuesday in Sep-
tember. There was a company muster every three months.
The "processioning" of lands was a colonial custom. It began in
1751 and was to be repeated every four years. It consisted in re-
marking the corners of the surveys, and was done by men appointed
for that purpose by the vestry. The purpose was to keep the lines from
being lost sight of, and to prevent unlawful hunting and ranging.
In 1755, James Hughart processioned in John Dickenson's militia
company of the Cowpasture, and Stephen Wilson and Joseph Carpen-
ter in Jeremiah Seely's company on Jackson's River. The following
document is dated October 12, 1765:
"As it has pleased your Worships to send an order to nominate Four
Persons in the Cow Pasture to mark the lines of the Several plantations
there, we the subscribers hereof have gone from the Forks at Jackson's Riv-
er upward to Joseph Mayse, and Thomas Feamster and William Black
from there to the head of the waters. There is many places that there is
no livers in and others that doth not know their lines. The names of such
as have f'd their lines are as follows.
McCay and Scott marked for themselves and for William Gill-
espie, John Handley, William McMurray, James Beard, John Dick-
enson, James Hamilton, Ralph Laverty, John Cartmill, James Hug-
hart, Robert Stuart, Charles Donally, and Thomas Gillespie. Feams-
ter and Black marked for themselves and James Mayse, John Mc-
Creery, James Knox, James Shaw, George Lewis, James Clements,
Hugh Hicklin, Charles Lewis, John Kinkead, Robert Hall, Boude
Estill, William Jackson, and James Bodkin.
About 1768, Samuel Hamilton marked for the following men be-
66 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
tween his house and James Beard's: Andrew Sitlington, John
Dickenson, William Sprowl, John Donally, Hugh Coffey, Joseph
Watson, Andrew Muldrock, William Daugherty, John Clendennin,
and William Mayse.
The first dwelling houses were small round-log cabins. The roof
was of long riven shingles held down by weight-poles. The floor
was of puncheons, or even the natural earth. But larger and better
houses of hewn logs soon made their appearance. That of William
Jameson, of the Calf pasture, built in 1752, was 18 by 24 feet in the
clear, and one and one-half stories high. James Carlile did the work
for $22.50. Jameson brought suit on the ground that the house was
badly put together, some of the logs being but four inches thick in-
stead of the six inches required by the agreement, and that some
rows of shingles lay 20 inches to the weather.
In many an instance the settler had learned some handicraft. On
the frontier he could still follow his trade to some extent, making it
a side-line to his farming. One man was a weaver, another a mill-
wright, another a cooper, and still another a carpenter or cabinet-
maker. A very important man was the blacksmith. He did not
limit himself to repair work, but was really an iron-worker. He
manufactured nails, horeshoes, edged tools, and copper-glazed bells.
He also made farm implements, except such as were wholly of wood.
The tilled acreage was small, because the pioneer grew little more
than the supplies consumed on his place. The farming tools were few
and simple. Almost the only horse implements were the wooden
plow and the brush harrow. Wagons were scarce at first, but were
fairly common during the Revolution. Indian corn, unknown in
the British Isles, was the only staple the pioneer had to learn how to
grow. The Ulster people were proficient in linen weaving, and the
flax patch was seen on every frontier farm. Only the well-to-do
could wear clothes made of imported cloth. Others wore home-
spun made of flax fiber or wool, or a mixture of the two. Hemp
was peculiarly a money crop and was encouraged by the Virginia
government. It was suited to the deep black soil of the river bot-
toms. The price was $5 a hundredweight, and there was also i
bounty of $1. Charles Lewis, the champion hemp grower of Bath,
had a crop of 2374 pounds in 1773. Few planters produced so
much as 1000 pounds.
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 67
Bath has been a grazing region from the very first, and the pio-
neer farm was well stocked with horses, sheep, and hogs. The
smaller domestic animals needed protection from the bears, panthers,
and wolves. The grown animals were not so large as those of the
The frequency with which the colonial will begins with a long
pious preamble, would seem to indicate that the pioneers were usu-
ally attendants on religious service. And yet profanity was very-
prevalent, not to mention coarseness of speech. Gambling was also
common. Complaint was made of one Bath magistrate for visiting
a gaming house and violating his official duty by failing to report it.
The pioneers of this county were Presbyterians. Their first
minister was John Craig, who preached on the Cowpasture at least
as early as 1749. He was followed by Alexander Craighead, who
came to Augusta in 1752 and two years later purchased a part of
the Dickenson homestead. Whether he lived here or on the farm
he owned in the Borden grant, we do not know. At this time the
Church of England was also the established church in Virginia. No
one except a minister of that communion might marry a couple, and
there was no resident clergyman in Augusta until 1760. The Indian
war broke out shortly after Craighead's arrival. He thought it too
great a hardship for the frontier people to bear the brunt of this
bitter conflict, and at the same time be subject to religious disabilities.
In 1755 he went to North Carolina, where the laws were more lib-
eral. In that colony he was the only Presbyterian minister between
the Yadkin and the Catawba. Craigheard was followed by so many
of his congregation on the Cowpasture that for a while it was almost
broken up. One effect of the Indian war was greatly to loosen the
application of the laws against dissenters, and one result of American
independence was full religious liberty in Virginia. It may be open
to question whether Craighead chose the better course in quitting his
field and not helping in the fight for toleration. But in North Carolina,
where he died in 1768, he did good service in preparing his flock for
the inevitable conflict with England. It was his adopted county —
Mecklenberg — that was a year ahead of the Continental Congress in
declaring for the independence of America.
Windy Cove is the mother church of all the Presbyterian organi-
zations in Greater Bath. The original church building, a little
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
round-log structure with a large fireplace, stood on Craighhead's
farm. According to the memorial slab that marks the spot, it was
erected in 1760. This is an error. At that date the Indian war
had not ceased, there was no resident minister, and the congregation
was nearly broken up because of the exodus to North Carolina. The
real date is probably not later than 1752. The church seems to have
been burned by the Indians between 1753 and 1763. About 1756,
Laverty and Millroy employed William Gillespie to reroof the
church for $10, but they brought suit on the ground that his work
did not sufficiently turn the rain and snow. A second and smaller
church was built about 1766 near the site of the present Windy Cove.
This was succeeded by a church and a session house of hewed logs,
and these in 1837 by the present brick buildings. The second resi-
dent minister was John Montgomery. His ministry was from 1789
The first of the offshoots from Windy Cove used as a house of
worship was a log building on the Dean homestead on Jackson's
River. This gave place to a church at Warm Springs.
The first elders of Windy Cove were William Gillespie, John
Sitlington, Nathaniel Crawford, and Joseph Surber.
The names given below are those of the communicants at Windy
Cove in 1833 :
Bell, Thomas A.
Bell, Joseph W. G.
Bratton, Mary, Sr.
Bratton, Mary, Jr.
Dickenson, Adam, Jr.
Dickenson, John 0.
Frasier, Jane G.
Frasier, Martha G.
Hutchinson, Harriet K. Porter, Martha
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 69
Porter, Mary Sitlington, Thomas Walters, Benijah
Porter, Rachel Sloan, Mary Withrow, Eliza
Porter, Rebecca Surber, Jane Woods, Edward
Ryne, Martha Surber, Levi Woods, , Mrs.
Sitlington, Mary (1) Surber, Mary Mingo (negro)
Sitlington, Mary (2) Surber , Mrs. Bridget (negro)
Sitlington, Nancy Williams, Elisha, Jr.
The ruling element in colonial Virginia held that education is
a private and not a public interest, and that schooling is to be pur-
chased like clothing or groceries. This is why the subject has only
incidental mention in the public records. So far as we know, the
first schoolhouse in the Bath area stood on Indian Draft, in or near
the basin of Stuart's Creek. It is mentioned in 1779. But ever
since the Reformation came to Scotland, the Scotch people have been
noted for their zeal in the cause of general education. The ability
to read and write was almost universal among the pioneers of Bath.
We have found scores of their signatures, often written in a plain,
The settlers of Augusta were very much given to litigation. The
number of their lawsuits, during the 30 years prior to the Revolution,
runs into the thousands. The settlers of Bath seem to have fur-
nished their full proporton. Some persons were exceedingly con-
tentious and were almost constantly in court for years. Most of the
suits were for debt. Not a few were for assault and battery. Many
others were for slander. If a man gave a note, performed a piece
of work, or ran up a bill at a store, the outcome was commonly a
lawsuit, and sometimes it dragged through court after court for a
number of years. It sometimes looks as though every man was not
only all the while in debt, but was holding notes against other per-
sons. It was a common thing for a person to claim damages for
being called a thief. It was even more common for both men and
women to complain of having immoral behavior alleged against them.
Some of these charges are gross in the extreme, and are set forth in
the bills of complaint with a frankness that is astonishing. It is evi-
dent that the people of old Augusta knew perfectly well how to call
a spade a spade.
The pioneers were not meek in submitting to any human author-
ity. The justices of the county court were sometimes "damned"
or otherwise insulted while sitting on the bench. In 1754, a woman
70 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
called William Wilson a rogue, and said that on his "coming off
the bench she would give it to him with the devil." At another
time, three soldiers came into the court-room and insulted the jus-
tices. The court was repeatedly disturbed by rioting in the court-
yard or by ball playing. As for the constables they were not to be
envied in attempting to discharge their duty. Sometimes they could
not serve a writ "by reason of a fresh." One of them says he was
"kept off by force of arms." Another says his writ was "not exe-
cuted case of by a hay fork." A third says, "the fellow gave me
neel play." A writ against two settlers near Fort Dickenson was
not executed in 1758 "for fear of the Indians."
Micheal Harper complained that three of the Bath settlers burn-
ed his house and 500 rails and committed other "enormities." John
Bodkin was granted two pounds damages for being accused of steal-
ing a filley. Robert Duffield complained of a certain very conten-
tious and rather pugilistic settler that the said person killed a black
mare belonging to him. A woman on Jackson's River was accused by
another woman of stealing a cheese, but was granted only one penny
damages. A man on the Cowpasture sued Joseph Mayse for speak-
ing of him as a hog thief. In this suit a pioneer of Stuart's Creek
deposed that he saw the plaintiff drivng away seven "hoggs" from
the plantation of Colonel Lewis and supposed them to belong to
Mayse. William Wilson sued two men for using several nanels of
his fence to catch a horse belonging to one of them ; also for burning
some of the fencing, whereby eight acres of rye and fifteen of good
timothy were ruined. This was in 1757, during the Indian war, and
Wilson lost the suit. William Armstrong sued a neighbor for coming
at him with "clubs, swords, staves, knives, feet, hands, and sticks."
whereby he was knocked senseless and his arm broken. The bill
fails to state how many hands and fingers the assailant possessed.
During the Revolution the mines of Wythe county were an im-
portant source of bullets and shot. Attempts to manufacture powder
were begun at an early day in the Alleghany region, and were con-
tinued until until near the middle of the last century. The first
powder mill we hear of in Greater Bath was at Fort Mann. Anoth-
er, on Blue Spring Run in Rich Patch Mountain, is spoken of in 1810.
The first drowning in the Cowpasture that we hear of was that
of Garret Phclnn, in 1782. The inquest was held at David Frame's.
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 71
The coroner's jury consisted of Charles Cameron, James Henry,
Patrick Miller, Andrew Sitlington, Robert McCreery, Alexander
Black, William Black, David Frame, Jermiah Frame, Matthias Ben-
son, and Sampson Wilson. Wilson was from the Doe Hill neigh-
Thomas Feamster "bred a meeting" in 1757 and was its spokes-
man. He set forth his refusal to muster, saying Captain George
Wilson had given to women and children provisions that belonged
to the soldiers. He said Wilson's character would become as well
known a it was in Pennsylvania. Wilson brought suit for slander
and won. One pioneer of the Calfpasture sued another for saying he
had stolen two shirts from the neighbor and had been to see a conjuror
about it. It was easily within the recollection of the people then living
that a woman had been ducked in Princess Anne County for witch-
Previous to the French and Indian war small printed forms were
used for writs. From then until the Revolution legal papers were
written out by hand, usually in a neat, legible manner. Very small
pieces of paper were used, and the lines of writing were near to-
gether. This was because of the high cost of paper. The ink was
very good and the writing is easily read to-day. None but quill
pens were known or used, and unlike steel pens their action is not
The large river farms were really plantations, and were spoken
of as such. And as these farms took in nearly all the prime tillable
land in Bath, the structure of society was rather aristocratic for a
mountain region. So often are the planters mentioned as officers of
the militia, that one is sometimes inclined to wonder who were the
Money was computed, as in England, in pounds, shillings, and
pence. But on this side of the Atlantic, these words applied to val-
ues and not to coins. The Virginia pound was worth almost one-
third less than the pound sterling, and for this reason English money
did not circulate in the colony. In Virginia currency, the pound was
worth $3.33, the shilling 16 2-3 cents, and the penny a little more
than 1 and 1-3 cents. The hard money in actual use came from the
West Indies, and was of Spanish, French, and Portuguese mintage.
Thus we read frequently of the pistole, the doubloon, and the "loo-
72 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
dore," which were gold coins worth, respectively, $3.92, $5.00, and
$3.96. It was thus that the Americans became acquainted with the
"piece of eight," or Mexican dollar. The former name was because
it was divided into eight reals, the real being a silver coin of the
value of nine pence, or 12H cents. The earliest mention of the dol-
lar by name is in 1752, when Adam Dickenson thus acknowledges
a payment on a note: "Rec'd of the within 28 dollars."
"Since the gold and silver coins that passed from hand to hand
were of so varied a character, it was tedious and inconvenient to turn
their values into Virginia money. They were computed by weight,
and this is why money scales are often mentioned in inventories of
personal property. The silver coins were legal tender at the rate
of 3 3 A pence per penny-weight, or $1.04 per ounce. Copper pennies
were coined for Virginia in 1733. Paper money of colonial issue be-
gan to appear in 1755. The ten pound bill was only 2^2 by 3 inches
in size, was crudely engraved, and was numbered and signed with a
common pen. The bill pictured in this book was once held by
William Blanton, who asked Charles Lewis to change it for him
or get it changed. That planter could not change it himself, and was
holding it until an opportunity arrived, when he showed it to Adam
Bovvyer, the sheriff. Bowyer pronounced it counterfeit, and Lewis
gave back the bill to Blanton, who brought suit against the man
who had passed it on him.
When a nominal money consideration was written into a legal
document, the sum mentioned is usually five shillings. Five per cent
was the legal rate of interest. There were no banks, and men who
had considerable money on hand were accustomed to hide it. Peter
W right hid some money on Peter's Mountain in so secure a manner
that it was not found until a comparatively recent day.
Most of the early settlers of Bath came through Philadelphia, and
their merchants often purchased their goods in that city. Thus we
can understand the very frequent mention of Pennsylvania money, in
which the pound was worth only $2.50. The fact that the Mexican
dollar, was worth six shillings in Virginia or New England money,
and eight shillings in the money of the Middle Colonies, is the
leading reason why the dollar, already a well-known coin, became
the unit of the new Federal currency. Under the names of "levy"
and "fip," the real and half-real (12K- and 6% cents) were legal ten-
der in this country until near the time of the civil war.
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 73
Certain of the Augusta court records, particularly those relating
to suits for debt, throw much light on values in the colonial era.
The purchasing power of the dollar was several times greater than
it is now. This fact helps to explain why the prices of land and
livestock seem so very low. On the other hand, some articles were
very expensive; relatively more so than they are now. Whether, on
the whole, living was easier than with us can be judged fairly well
by studying the values mentioned in the paragraphs below. Most of
these have been taken from the law documents which concern the
pioneers of Greater Bath.
What land sold for in various years may be found in Chapter III.
As to land rent, we find two instances. A farm of 517 acres on
Back Creek rented three years for $6.46. James Gay was to pay
John Warwick four pounds yearly for three years for 149 acres. A
mare could be had for $15, although an extra good horse might come
as high as $40. Andrew Lockridge paid $6.17 for a cow, but Valen-
tine Coyle furnished one for $3.58 to Patrick Martin's militia com-
pany. Rachel Burnside, perhaps through sheer necessity, sold two
cows and a yearling for $10. We find mention of a hog at $2.1 1, and
a sheep at $1.14, although one animal of either sort could ordinarily
be had at rather less than one dollar. The one mention of a goose
is at 42 cents. Common labor ran from 33 to 50 cents a day, al-
though corn could be gathered and husked for 25 cents, and 33 cents
would command the services of a person who could tend store, and
post books. James Bourland charged but 50 cents a day for him-
self, wagon and two horses. But George Lewis, working at a
somewhat later date at Warm Springs, charged $1.08 for himself
and three horses. Jacob Marlin, a trapper, charged $3.75 for the
use of a horse two months. A horse could be kept one week for a
shilling, but Michael Harper was charged $5.33 for the wintering
of a single horse. Rails could be split for 37^4 cents a thousand, al-
though selling as high as $5. A blacksmith would make a mattock
for 67 cents. A carpenter charged William Dean 83 cents for mak-
ing a churn, $2.50 for laying his barn floor, $6.67 for covering his
house, and $10 for covering his barn. A bedstead could be made for
$1.25, a loom for $5, and a coffin for $2.17. Two pounds — $6.67 —
would build one of the big stone chimneys of that day, and four
pounds would build a log dwelling. David Kincaid's house in 1752
74 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
cost him $30. We find $7.50 charged for making a spring house.
and only 83 cents for a lime kiln. $10 would pay for a year's
schooling. Aminta Usher, servant to Loftus Pullin, worked for $20
Wheat varied little from 50 cents a bushel and oats 33 cents.
Rye was quoted at 25 to 42 cents, corn at 24 to 38 cents, and pota-
toes 20 cents. Even in the Greenbrier settlement of 1762, corn com-
manded 33 cents. Flour by the barrel ran all the way from $3.25
to $8.33. Butter was worth five to eight cents a pound. Beef and
mutton averaged hardly more than two cents a pound, although there
is an instance where we find 400 pounds of bear meat, bacon, and
venison billed at $25. In 1749, Joseph Mayse sold a "half buflar"
for $1.25. Half a bear carcass is mentioned at 83 cents, and a
whole deer at 36 cents. A month's board bill could be satisfied for
$3. All condiments were brought from the seaports. It was here
that the pioneer "caught it in the neck." Salt was 67 cents a quart
in 1745. As late as 1763 coarse salt commanded $2 a bushel, and
it cost 83 cents to bring it from Richmond. Tea was $1.56 a pound
and coffee $1. Bottled honey was 31 cents. Pepper was 75 cents a
pound and alspice 54 cents. Nutmeg was 17 cents an ounce and cin-
namon 58 cents. As to sugar, we are sometimes in doubt whether
maple or cane sugar is meant. White loaf sugar from the West
Indies was sometimes 25 cents a pound. Brown cane sugar was
Clothing was costly. Homemade linen could be woven for six
cents a yard, but Irish linen cost $1.08 a yard, ribbon 17 cents, flannel
41 cents, sheeting $1.25, and velvet $3.33. A handkerchief of cotton
or linen cost from 25 to 33 cents, while one of silk cost 75 cents.
Men's stockings, which came above the knee and were there secured
under the ends of the trousers with a buckle, cost 80 to 90 cents.
Worsted hose for women was 50 cents and plaid hose 33 cents.
Headgear was high or low according to the means of the wearer.
A woman's hat is mentioned at $5 and a boy's at 83 cents. But a
cheap felt hat could he purchased for 33 cents. Leggins were $1.04,
pumps $2, and men's fine shoes $1.41. James Carlile's blue broad-
cloth coat cost him $S.42. Gloves are listed at 58 cents, a necklace
at 33, and a woman's fan at 2S. A pair of steel buckles for shoes or
knees cost 2S cents, hut the man of fashion insisted on silver for both
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 75
buttons and buckles, and he had his name put on the buttons. Com-
mon -buttons were 42 cents a dozen, silk garters were 42 cents a pair,
and thread was half a shilling to a shilling an ounce. Leather
breeches, very generally worn by laboring men, are priced at $3.17 a
pair. There were fabrics called osnaburg, callimanco, and none-so-
The hunter had to be a good marksman, when he paid 56 cents
a pound for powder and 21 cents for lead, and turned in beaver skins
at 83 cents each. His gunflints and fishhooks cost him about one cent
apiece. "Sang digging" was a rather profitable pursuit. In 1755
a Carlile promised 30 pounds of ginseng at Thomas Hicklin's house,
and it was valued at $20. Eight years later we find the root quoted
at a dollar a pound.
During the Revolution the mines of Wythe county were an im-
portant source of bullets and shot. Attempts to manufacture powder
were begun at an early day in the Alleghany region, and were con-
tinued until near the middle of the last century. The first powder
mill we hear of in Greater Bath was at Fort Mann. Another, on
Blue Spring Run in Rich Patch Mountain, is spoken of in 1819.
Nails were sometimes sold by count, ten-penny nails coming as
high as $1.50 a thousand. A bell and collar cost $1.25 and a horse-
shoe one shilling. A woman gave 11 cents for a thimble, six cents
a dozen for her needles, and 17 cents for a paper of pins. The doctor
was charged 33 cents a pound for his casteel soap, 67 cents an ounce
for his calomel, and 33 cents for a roll of court plaster.
In their account with John and George Francisco, the Mathews
brothers name the following items: Chalk per pound, $1 ; ten-penny
nails per pound, 21 cents; sheeting, 35 cents a yard; one frying pan,
Some miscellaneous values are shown in the list below:
Bible $1.00 Candles, per pound $ .08
Testament 33 Knives and forks, per dozen.. 1.56
Scythe 1.00 Brass knife and fork 21
Iron pot 1.17 Brimstone, per pound 17
Iron candlestick 11 Indigo, per ounce 17
Handsaw file 22 Tablecloth 1.33
Steelyards 2.33 Packsaddle 50
Whip 1.41 Pocketbook 83
Tallow, per pound 02 Basin 37^2
76 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Comb $1-33 Blanket $2.67
Ivory Comb 42 Making a jacket 1.00
Horn Comb 21 Gloves 58
Rye Brandy, per gallon 33 Tobacco 10 to .14
China bowl 33 Allspice, per pound 1.08
To give some idea of prices at the leading seaport of America, we
take the following items from the bills rendered in 1759 and 1760
by two merchants of Philadelphia against two merchants of Staun-
Tumblers, per dozen $3.33 Worsted Hose $.42
Glasses, per dozen 1.00 Sleeve buttons, per dozen 09
Flannel 33 Salt, per bushel 42
Needles, per thousand 1.12 Bar iron, per pound 04
China bowl 33 Bar lead, per pound 05 3-5
Linen Handkerchief 14 Brown sugar 10
Silk Handkerchief 44 White sugar 25
The thinness of population, the fewness of towns, the slowness
of travel, and the comparative absence of newspapers and a real post-
al service, caused the life of the community to move at a slow pace.
So late as 1775, there were but two newspapers and 15 postoffices in
all Virginia. Postage was so high that many letters were sent by private
persons. There were no envelopes, and postmasters read the letters
just as gossip now claims that country postmasters are said to read
the postal cards. Until 1755, there was no regular service with the
British Isles, and if a letter weighed one ounce it cost a dollar to get
it delivered there.
The pioneers had little of our modern hurry, but were awake to
what was taking place in their own neighborhoods. On matters re-
lating to the colony in general, they were slow to move unless aroused
by their better informed leaders. As to anything like a national feel-
ing between the populations of the several colonies, there was nothing
worthy of the name.
A journal kept in 1740 by two Moravian missionaries gives us
a glimpse into the valleys of Bath after some four years of settle-
ment. These men were traveling afoot from Pennsylvania to the
Dunkard settlement on New River, ministering as they went along
to the spiritual needs of the pioneers of German birth. They came by
wav of the South Fork, and at the head of that river they reached
LIFE IN THE PIONEER DAYS 77
on the night of November 13th — November 24th, New Style — an
"English Cabin," probably that of Hercules Wilson. Here they warm-
ed themselves by a fire on the hearth and slept on bearskins spread on
the floor. Like all the settlers this family had bear meat, and like
some of them it had no bread. But on the morning of that day a
German woman had given the missionaries some bread and cheese.
These eatables they shared with their entertainers.
Next day, after frequent fordings of the Cowpasture, they came
either to the Black or the Jackson farm and lodged there for the
night. Their host was suspicious and not very willing, but in the
morning he was induced to put them over the Bullpasture on his horse,
the waters being high. They soon fell in with George Lewis, who
was traveling on horseback in the same direction they were going.
This man set them across the river at 12 fords. They seem to have
parted with him when they left the vicinity of the river and began
climbing Warm Springs Mountain. A rain began to fall, and it was
dusk when they reached the summit. They were not only wet, but
were weary with a hard day's walk. They found an empty hut,
which must have stood near the present tollgate. They had nothing
for a supper, but made a fire and dried their clothes. In the morn-
ing they hurried down the mountain into Warm Springs Valley, and
at the first house they had a breakfast of hominy and buttermilk.
They speak of the man as a good Presbyterian, but do not give his
name. He was probably James Ward. The missionaries do not say
a word about the thermal waters. They were in a hurry to get on.
They could not speak English fluently, and along this part of the way
there were no German settlers. Jackson's River was crossed by
swimming and with some difficulty. They speak of "mountains all
around." At the close of this day, after crossing Dunlap Creek, they
reached a house, perhaps that of Peter Wright. Here they again
slept on bearskins, like the rest of the family. While crossing a
mountain on their way to Craig's Creek, they heard an "awful howl-
ing of wolves."
These Moravians found that the people they met were living like
savages, wearing deerskin clothes, and making hunting their chief
pursuit. The style of living among the settlers is mentioned as poor
in the extreme. But this was in the very infancy of the settlement
of Bath, and was during the "wild and wolly" stage of its evolution.
78 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Doctor Thomas Walker, in his diary for July, 1750, says the
settlers on Jackson's River "are very hospitable and would be better
able to support themselves, were it not for the great number of In-
dian warriors that frequently take what they want from them, much
to their prejudice."
At the date of the Dunmore war, and still more so after the
close of the Revolution, there was a comparative degree of prosper-
ity and comfort. Staunton, a village of some 20 houses in 1753, grew
into a sizable place and had its third courthouse. To Richmond,
which did not become the state capital till 1779, produce was wagoned
from the Augusta settlements. After 1783, the Indian peril was a
thing of the past. But in the features of local government there was
little change, outside of the abolition of the vestry. This came with
the disestablishment of the Church of England near the close of the
war for Independence.
TEN YEARS OF INDIAN WAR
NTIL 1748, and theoretically until 1763, the Alleghany
Front was the western frontier of Virginia. Beyond
was the Indian country, claimed by the English and
the French, as well as by the natives. The conflict known
in American history as the French and Indian war broke out in 1754.
It was a final struggle between England and France for control in the
Western Continent, and victory declared for the former. Aside
from the Iroquois of New York, nearly all the Indian tribes aided
the French. They resumed the strife on their own account in the
episode known as the war with Pontiac's confederacy. A general
peace did not come until 1764.
No Indians were living in Bath when the white settlers appear-
ed, although hunting parties visited these valleys in the fall months.
They called at the cabins of the white people and learned to express
themselves in the English tongue. By reason of this intercourse they
became very familiar with words of insult and profanity.
The points of view of the two races were very divergent. The
pioneer despised the native as a heathen, and showed little tact or pa-
tience in dealing with him. Because the red man did not cultivate the
ground, except to a slight extent, the white man could not see that
his claim to the country was worthy of any serious consideration. He
did not conceal his desire that the Indian should get entirely out of
his way, so that he might have the whole country for himself. On
the other hand, the Indian did not like the British-American. His
people were very few in number, while the whites were a host. The
powerful and ceaseless push of the latter was driving him farther and
farther away from the hunting grounds where his own people had
followed the chase for generations. There was sentiment in the In-
dian, and those hunting grounds were sacred in his eyes. He was
proud as well as free. He did not give up the hopeless struggle with-
out a long and gallant fight, during which he inflicted far heavier
losses than he received. He was cruel in war, after the manner of
all barbarians, yet the frontiersman was not far behind him.
80 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
There were some curious exceptions to the general rule. "Mad
Anthony," for whom Anthony's Creek is named, was an Indian
hunter who used to visit Fort Young and tell of the plots of his
race. Quite as a matter of course, he was distrusted by both pale-
face and redskin. White men, taken captive in boyhood, could only
with much difficulty he weaned from the life of the forest, and
sometimes they fought against their own color.
The shamefuL defeat of General Braddock in July, 1755, ex-
posed the whole inland frontier to the vengeance of the native. Wash-
ington was put in charge of the Valley of Virginia and made every
effort to defend it. His position was a very trying one. With only
a few hundred militia, untrained, insubordinate, and poorly equip-
ped, he was expected to defend a line 300 miles long. He was under
the authority of a royal governor who was stingy, meddlesome, and
inefficient, and was also hampered by a legislature that was not only
meddlesome but at times incompetent and unfriendly.
Many of the people on the fronter did not think that the colonial
government rose to its duty, and they flocked into the upland districts
of the Carolinas. There were some others who did not leave the
colony, but sought places of greater safety. Those who remained
at their homes were in almost constant danger except in the winter
season. Rangers, who were known as Indian spies, watched the
trails and the mountain passes. They were forbidden to make fires
to warm themselves, lest the smoke might give notice to some lurking
enemy. A horseman, speeding over the bridlepaths, and shouting
"Indian sign" to every person he met, caused the families along his
route to make a hurried flight to the nearest stockade or blockhouse.
There they "forted" during the times of special danger. Fierce
dogs, trained to recognize the odor of the Indian, were an additional
means of protection.
And yet the pioneers were wilfully careless. While serving as
militia they could not be counted upon to obey their officers or serve
out their terms. They disliked to be cooped up in the stockades. At
such times they not only took imprudent risks, but they were negli-
gent in sentinel duty. When Washington passed through the Bath
area on a tour of inspection, not one of the forts he visited was in a
proper condition for defense. There was not one which could not
have been surprised with ease. He also writes that the members of
TEN YEARS OF INDIAN WAR 81
his escort conducted themselves in a most foolhardy manner. It is
not pleasant to learn of these shortcomings of our ancestors, and to
see that their hardships were due in a considerable degree to their
own fault. While in service the militiaman received one shilling a
The leading stronghold on the Cowpasture was Fort Dickenson.
It stood in the midst of the river-bottom, a half mile north of Nim-
rod Hall and to the west of the stream. There is nothing to mark
the exact site. Close to where is now an ancient brick house, a mile
north of Fassifern on Jackson's River, was Fort Dinwiddie, the south-
ern limit of Washington's tour of observation in the fall of 1755.
Like Fort Dickenson, it stood on the second bottom and near a water
supply. Near the Clover Creek mill on the Bullpasture stood Fort
George, in the midst of a meadow that has never been plowed, and
hence the lines of stockade and covered way may easily be traced.
Near the site of the iron furnace at Covington was Fort Young,
built in 1756 according to specifications given by Washington. A
council of war held in the same year speaks of Fort Breckenridge
and Fort Christian, the former 16 miles from Fort Dickenson, and
the latter 15 miles from Fort Dinwiddie. They were small stock-
ades and both stood on Jackson's River. It is probable that Fort
Christian was but another name for Fort Mann, which stood at the
mouth of Falling Springs Run.
There were also fortified houses capable of repelling an ordinary
attack. Thomas Feamster, who lived a mile south of Williams-
ville, hit upon an ingenious device. His house stood near Meadow
Lake, a pool more than an acre in extent. In the midst of this water
he built a blockhouse supported on piles, some of which remained
visible many years. The blockhouse was approached by a foot-bridge,
the planks being detachable.
In a letter of September 23, 1755, Robert McClenachan relates
that Captain Dickenson had had a "scrimmage" with nine Indians,
killing one of them and losing one of his own men. Two Cherokee
boys were released and taken to Fort Dinwiddie to remain there until
the governor could make known his wish as to what should be done
with them. The Cherokees were at this time allies of the English.
The writer does not say where the skirmish occurred, and it probably
happened on the Greenbrier.
82 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
A council of war held at Staunton, July 27, 1756, decided in fa-
vor of placing a garrison of 30 men at Miller's Fort, and 60 at Fort
Dinwiddie. Miller's Fort stood 15 miles up Jackson's River from
Fort Dinwiddie. Forts Breckenridge and Dinwiddie, the former 13
miles from Dinwiddie and 13 from Dickenson, were deemed properly
protected by the men already there.
Of the Indian raids into Bath, the earliest we can locate took
place near the middle of September, 1756. Within or very near the
present county limits, and mainly along Jackson's River, nine men,
one woman, and three children were killed, and two men were
wounded. Among the slain were Ensign Humphrey Madison, John
Byrd, Nicholas Carpenter, James Mayse, and James Montgomery.
Joseph Carpenter, David Galloway, and a Mrs. McConnell were
captured, but got away. Mrs. Byrd, Mrs. George Kincaid, Mrs.
Persinger, and 25 boys and girls were taken to the Indian towns in
Ohio. Among the children were six Byrds, five Carpenters, and two
During this raid occurred the first attack on Fort Dickenson.
Captain Dickenson was absent at a general muster. When Wash-
ington came along, about seven weeks later, he remarks that the
stockade was in need of improvement. He also remarks that at the
time of the attack, the Indians crept close to the enclosure without
being discovered and captured several children.
A council of war the same year advised stationing 250 men at
Fort Dickenson, 100 at Fort Dinwiddie, and 40 at each of the other
forts, Breckenridge and Christian. The only way to have secured
garrisons of such strength was to bring soldiers from east of the Blue
In the summer of 1757 Fort Dickenson was invested a second
time. Again Dickenson was absent, and again there was negligence
on the part of the defenders. The approach of the Indians was first
known by seeing the cattle of John McClung running toward the
fort with arrows sticking in their backs. Several boys had gone out-
side the stockade to gather wild plums and they were captured. Among
them was Arthur Campbell, a militiaman of 15 years who later on
became prominent in the annals of southwest Virginia. A girl named
Krwin moulded bullets for the men in the fort. Governor Dinwid-
die, always swift to find fault, scolded Dickenson for being away and
ordered Major Andrew Lewis to garrison the post with 70 men.
TEN YEARS OF INDIAN WAR 83
Between the middle of May and the end of September of this
year, we are told of six more men who lost their lives. In this num-
ber were Sergeant Henry at Fort Dinwiddie, and John Moore and
James Stuart on the Cowpasture. Stuart may have been killed in
the second attack on Fort Dinwiddie. James Allen and one Swoope
were wounded on Jackson's River. This season, 11 captives were
carried away. Among them were James McClung, James Stuart,
Jr., Mrs. Moore and her children, and two Cartmill children.
The affair at Fort Dinwiddie was perhaps the same for which
John Brown put in a claim. He was helping to convoy some pro-
visions to the fort and the guard was attacked.
In April, 1758, there was still another raid into the valley of
the Cowpasture. A man was killed and a boy and a girl were cap-
tured. All three of these were servants. During this incursion the
Indians are reported as having carried away John and William Mc-
Creery. This statement is probably incorrect. One Kephart was a
tenant on the McCreery plantation and lost two sons by capture.
They made their escape, however.
Fort Duquense fell in 1759. The Indians were now deprived of
French support and their raids soon came to a pause. These were
not confined to the settlements west of Shenandoah Mountain. The
northern and middle portions of the Shenandoah Valley were severe-
ly scourged. Staunton and its neighborhood fared better, the natives
not coming within five miles of that place. But for some cause the
Indians bore a deep grudge against the settlement on Kerr's Creek.
Their first foray into that valley seems to have taken place in Octob-
er, 1759. The assailants came from the direction of Sweet Springs.
They are said to have killed 12 persons and carried away 13. With
wonderful energy Charles Lewis raised in one night a pursuing party
of 150 men, Captain Dickenson heading one of the three companies.
The foe was overtaken on Straight Fork, west of the Crabbottom in
Highland County. A surprise was intended, but through a mis-
chance it was far from complete, and the Indians escaped wth a loss
stated at 20 of their warriors, though it was probably less. The
booty they were carrying away was retaken. Thomas Young was
killed in this fight and Captain Dickenson was wounded.
The Pontiac war suddenly burst out in June, 1763. It had been
planned with great secrecy by the red men and was designed as a
84 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
simultaneous attack along the whole western frontier. To Corn-
stalk, a Shawnee chieftain of unusual ability, was assigned the task
of dealing a heavy blow on the Greenbrier and the settlements to
the southeast. With a strong band he fell upon the unsuspecting
Greenbrier settlements, and in a day or two he had blotted them out.
One Conrad Yoakum outdistanced the Indians in their progress to
Jackson's River, and gave warning to the people around Fort Mann.
The settlers could scarcely credit the report, yet they gathered into
the blockhouse and sent a courier to Fort Young, 10 miles down the
river. Captains Moffett and Phillips set out with 60 men to their
relief. The scouts kept cautiously along the river-bank the entire
distance. But when the main body reached the horseshoe peninsula
immediately below the fort, they thought to gain time by marching
arcoss the neck. As a result of their imprudence they fell into an
ambuscade and lost 15 of their number, the survivors retreating.
This action seems to have taken place July 16th.
The fort was not taken, but the Shawnees followed up their vic-
tory over the relief party by going down Jackson's River and then
up the Cowpasture. They were seen near Fort Young and an ex-
press rode at full speed to William Daugherty's. That pioneer was
away from home, but his wife mounted the only horse in the stable and
raced up the valley, warning the settlers as she galloped along. Her
house was burned but we are told that no scalps were then taken on
the Cowpasture. If so, it was during some previous raid that a man
was shot while standing on a bluff near the Blowing Cave. His
body fell into the river.
The Indian army now divided, one part turning homeward, and
the other crossing Mill Mountain to Kerr's Creek, where, only two
days after the havoc in Greenbrier, there was more loss by fire and
massacre than on the former occasion. This time they had nothing
to fear from Charles Lewis, for he was now serving in Pennsylvania
under Colonel Bouquet. The other squad seems to have returned by
way of Green Valley, near the head of Stuart's Creek. Close to the
present home of Jasper C. Lewis, they killed one or more persons, and
carried off the wife of Joseph Mayse, her son Joseph, Jr., and another
woman, whose name is now unknown. The captors appear to be
the same party that attacked the home of William Wilson at the
TEN YEARS OF INDIAN WAR 85
mouth of Bolar Run. They were beaten off, though not until they
had wounded the wife of Wilson, and a daughter, and carried away
his son Thomas.
Joseph Mayse afterward wrote an account of his experience.
His guard camped the first night on the west slope of Warm Springs
Mountain, and at a large pine, which continued to stand until a few
years since. A lateral root made the spot where the boy was order-
ed to lie down a most uncomfortable couch. For a while he feared
to complain, lest he be quieted with a tomahawk. But his position
proving quite unendurable, he nudged the Indian lying by his side
and made him understand the situation. The brave made a comrade
move over, so as to permit the boy to rest in some comfort. On the
Greenbrier the Indians were overtaken by a pursuing force. The
pony which young Mayse was riding carried also a coil of rope, and
in the confusion caused by the attack, an end of the rope caught on
a bush and dragged him off. He was thus restored to his people.
While Cornstalk was falling upon the Greenbrier settlement, a
band of Delawares and Mingoes divided on New River, one party
going to Catawba Creek and the other to Dunlap. The latter cross-
ed Jackson's River above Fort Young and went on to Carpenter's
blockhouse, which stood near the residence of Colonel W. A. Gil-
liam. Near the house they killed and scalped William Carpenter,
after which they plundered the dwelling, took his son Joseph, two
Brown children and a woman, and began their return by way of
Greenbrier. The shot was heard at Fort Young, but as the garrison
was weak, an express was sent to Captain Audley Paul at Fort Din-
widdie. He pursued, and though he did not overtake this party, he
came up with and scattered the party returning from the Catawba.
The younger Brown became known as Colonel Samuel Brown of
Greenbrier. His brother remained with the reds, but visited his
mother in her old age. Joseph Carpenter became a doctor in
It is probable that the attack on the Carpenters occurred only a
day or two after the battle at Fort Mann.
Bouquet's victory at Brushy Run near the site of Pittsburg,
brought an early end to the war with Pontiac. The Indians were
required to give up the prisoners they had collected during the pre-
ceding ten years. In the number were Mrs. Mayse, John Byrd, and
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
doubtless several other persons belonging to the Bath area. One of
the restored girls was reared by Captain Dickenson, and she became
the wife of James McClung. As in several other similar instances
her real name was never learned.
The following letter of the Indian period is the earliest we know
of to be written in Bath. It seems to have been addressed to Thomas
Jackson's River, May ye 15th, 1755.
I have been stopping here several days in purchasing
of provisions. I have purchased as much grain as will serve three months,
but will have a great deal of deficiency in getting of meat. I propose to
march in ye Narrows towards Greenbrier. I think I shall go to Marlings
(now Marlinton, W. Va.) in two days, where I purpose to construct a small
fort. I hope you will be so kind as to remind Mr. Jones (Gabriel Jones,
King's Attorney of Augusta County) to bring pay for my company from
Colonel Wood as often as he has an opportunity, which he promised to do.
I have nothing that is new to acquaint you of. I am, dear brother, your
most affectionate and very humble servant,
A partial list of Captain John Dickenson's Rangers in 1757-59
affords the following names:
Bollar, John (Sergeant) Hamilton, William
Kelly, Thomas (corpo
Madison, Humphrey (en- Taylor, John
sign) Wiley, John
Gillespie, Robert, Sr. (ser- McMullen, Edward
The following is the muster roll of Captain George Wilson's
company, August 11, 1756:
Hugh Hicklin — lieutenant Barton, James
Thomas Hughart — ensign Bell, Joseph
Charles Gilham — ser- Black, William
William Johnson — corpo-
Carlile, Robert (1)
Carlile, Robert (2)
De La Montony, Samuel
TEN YEARS OF INDIAN WAR
The letter below was written from Sitlington Creek, Pocahontas
county, a spot then on the very edge of white settlement, but techni-
cally within the Indian domain. The writer subsequently moved to
Green Briar September 25th 1766
This comes to let you know that I am in good health
at Present blessed be God for it hoping these will find you and your Fami-
ly in the same Condition, for tho' we have been long absent from each
other, yet neither Time nor distance of Place can remove the Brotherly
Affection I have for you. As for my Situation in this Country I live on a
Branch of the Mississippi Waters, which is a very fertile Land but it is
not yet Purchased from the Indians. I enjoy a reasonable Living; but have
been long in a dangerous situation from the incursions of the Savages, yet
thro the Protection of God have hitherto Escaped, and had I the comfort of
you to Converse with shou'd think myself Happy: But I dare not advise
to come to this Country, Yet were I in Ireland and had such a Family as
you have and cou'd foresee it no other way, I wou'd bind myself & them be-
fore I wou'd stay to be so Oppressed, but you have no Occasion, for if you
are unable to pay your Passage, come upon Redemption to Pennsylvania and
Brother William will soon relieve you, and as soon as I have an Opportu-
nity I will repay it him.
I had the Comfort of hearing of your welfare by Brother William which
gave me great Satisfaction and likewise I heard of Brother Thomas.
I have no Child which makes me the more Desirous to have you hear,
my Wife Joins in our Love to you and Family and Sister Elizabeth and
her Family and to all old Friends, which is all from your Affectionate &
Loving Brother till Death
THE POINT PLEASANT CAMPAIGN
Ten years of nominal peace succeeded ten years of intermittent
war. The boundary line between the two races had been pushed
westward to the Ohio, and yet England was vainly trying to keep
the Americans from settling beyond the Alleghany Front. In the
spring of 1774 anoether conflict was in sight. Wanton outrages were
being committed by white men as well as red men, and the latter
were putting on their war-paint. A campaign aganst the tribesmen
was planned at the capital of Virginia. It was arranged that Andrew
Lewis, then a member of the House of Burgesses from Botetourt,
should lead an expedition to the mouth of the Great Kanawha. He
was there to be joined by Governor Dunmore in person with 1200
men from the lower counties of the Valley of Virginia. Thus
opened the Dunmore war, waged on the side of the white people by
Virginia alone and against the desire of the British government. The
white soldiers taking part in it were almost wholly of American
birth and nearly all came from west of the Blue Ridge.
The militia were called out in June. During the last week of this
month a band of Indians penetrated as far as the Cowpasture, and
fired upon Fort Lewis from the steep hill just east of the river. The
range was too great for the firearms then in use to do any damage.
The redskins shouted to the men within to come out of the "Lewis
hogpen" and be accommodated with all the fight they could wish.
Charles Lewis was away at the time, and the defenders kept prudent-
ly inside. John McClenahan, who had married a Lewis, lay dying
in the stockade, and in setting down a mention of his death, his wife
said it took place amid the yelling of the savages in the woods.
Charles Lewis was now colonel of the Augusta militia. It was
near this time that he wrote the following letter to Colonel William
Dear Sir — I Received your letter of the 19th of June and will take all
oportunity to a Quente you of Every thing that happens here worth your
Notice, no Dout but you have herd of ye engagement that Capt Dickenson
is had with ye Indians, he had one man killed and his Lieutenant Wound-
THE POINT PLEASANT CAMPAIGN 89
cd. a fewe Days ago ye Indians fired at Wm Mcfarlen Neere ye Warm
Springs and wounded him slitly. Ye inhabitants of our Frunter is in ye
Greates Confuson. they are all gathered in forts. I have ordered out
Several Compneys of Militia which I am in hops will put a stope to
thir intended Hostilities. I hear that ye Assembly is to Meet ye 11th of
Next Month when I hope they will fall on som Method to put an End to
ye War. Since I begane to Rite to you I ha'e Re'd by way of Ex(p) ress from
fort Pitt that ye Indians is Suing for Pace, as to further perticlers I will
Refer you to my Brother (to) home I have sent Capt Connelly letter with
ye Indians speech.
I am Dr Sir your Humb Servant
July 9th 1774
The regiment under Charles Lewis formed a part of the column
led by his brother Andrew. Among his captains were John Skidmore
from the South Branch, Samuel Wilson from the head of the Bull-
pasture, Andrew Lockridge from the upper Cowpasture, John Lew-
is from Warm Springs, John Dickenson from the lower Cowpasture,
and George Mathews from Cloverdale. At the muster of September
27, their companies numbered, respectively, 32, 25, 28, 21, 56, and
60 men. The total for the regiment was 477. The muster rolls for
the above companies do not seem to be in existence, and we are there-
fore unable to publish the names of the soldiers.
Warm Springs was at this time the western terminus of a wagon
road, and several of the Augusta companies were assembled here by
the close of August. By September 12, 96 wagon loads of provisions
had arrived. Thence to the general rendezvous, where now stands
the town of Lew T isburg, only a bridlepath was available. For the re-
maining distance of 160 miles, a trail had to be cut through the woods.
It took 19 days to make this part of the march. Colonel Lewis
started from the Levels of Greenbrier September 6, his regiment con-
voying 500 packhorses and 108 beeves. At every camping place a
"grass guard" was put out to watch the cattle during the night. In-
dian spies were all the while lurking in front of the head of the
column, and once in a while they fired upon it. Matthew Arbuckle,
later a captain in the Revolution, piloted the army to its destination.
Ten years earlier, he had gone down the Kanawha with a load of
furs. His home was on the James, near Island Ford, and his
father, James Arbuckle, was one of the earliest settlers on this part of
90 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
At the end of August, Dunmore had not left Fort Pitt, now the
city of Pittsburg. His progress down the river was slow to a need-
less degree. He was to join the other column at Point Pleasant
September 20, but 16 days later he was still as far up the river as the
mouth of the Hockhocking. General Lewis arrived at the appointed
place October 6, and sent William Mann and William Sharp to see
where the governor was. They did not return for five days. Octo-
ber 9, Dunmore informed Lews through a messenger that he had
changed the plan of campaign. The southern division was now or-
dered to meet the other some distance west of the Ohio.
Lewis was intending to get ready the next day to move forward
from Point Pleasant. Meanwhile a force of Indians, probably rath-
er less than 800, and representing several tribes, had come in between
the two armies, paying no attention to that of Dunmore. Their lead-
er was Cornstalk, the Shawnee, one of the most able known in the
history of the red race. Before daylight on the 10th, they were across
the Ohio, and were stealing down the east bank in the hope of taking
the Virginians by surprise. They nearly succeeded in doing so.
There was slack discipline in the camp and the men were dissatisfied
with the lean beafsteak issued to them. Quite a number were out in
the woods hunting game, although the commander-in-chief had given
orders that no soldier should go out of the camp or fire a gun. Some
of these men, perhaps not always unintentionally, did not get back-
in time for the battle. Two of the number discovered the approach
of the Indians and gave the alarm. Colonels Lewis and Fleming:
were ordered forward with five companies, including those of Dick-
enson, Lockridge, and Wilson. They met the enemy half a mile
from the camp, but were forced to give ground. Lewis was soon
stricken with a mortal hurt and Fleming was severely wounded. A
reenforcement was sent to the firing line. Other men were set to
work felling trees for a breastwork. Such a protection for the camp
should not have been left till the last moment.
Across the tongue of land between the Ohio and the Great Ka-
nawha, the struggle raged until dusk. The opposing forces were on-
ly from six to twenty yards apart, every man taking a tree or any
other cover that he could find. The forest resounded with the din
of rifle and musket and with the yells and curses of paleface and red-
skin. Above the noise of battle the Virginians could hear the loud
THE POINT PLEASANT CAMPAIGN 91
voice of the Indian commander, shouting encouragement to his men.
Under a better generalship than that of Lewis, the red men fought
with a courage and determination that won the respect of their foes.
At noon there was a lull. The Indians fell back to rising
ground, dealing severe punishment to their pursuers. Not daring to
undergo the loss which would come by pressing a direct attack on
the new position, yet fearful of the result if the enemy was not dis-
lodged before night, General Lewis sent three companies to go up the
Kanawha, and then up a little tributary, so as to assail the left flank
of the Indians in the rear. This maneuver decided the long and bitter
conflict. Believing this turning movement was by Colonel Christian,
whose regment of 300 men from Fincastle county did not arrive un-
til after nightfall, the Indians drew farther back, although their de-
fiant taunts made Lewis suspect that they were reenforced. The
white men held the battlefield, although at the time they considered
the result scarcely better than a draw. Under cover of the darkness
Cornstalk made a skilful retreat across the Ohio, carrying all his
wounded with him. It is not believed that the Indian casualties were
much more than 100. According to Colonel James Smith, the total
number of the dead was 28. Of these, 17 were scalped by the whites.
Only one chief was slain. He was the father of the celebrated Te-
To the Virginians the victory came dear. Their loss is variously
stated and no official report is known to be in existence. It is some-
times set as high as 200. Many of the wounded died in the camp
owing to the want of competent care. Of the Augusta men 22 were
killed and 55 were wounded. Of the company officers under Colo-
nel Lewis, Captain Wilson was killed outright and Captains Dicken-
son and Skidmore were wounded.
At Point Pleasant, as in most other battles between the whites
and the reds, the latter had the fewer men in action and they inflicted
the heavier loss. Yet they have not the white man's persistence in
battle, and they are not patient under such losses as they received at
Point Pleasant. In this instance they were discouraged at their
failure to overwhelm their adversaries, and by going back to their vil-
lages they gave up the campaign.
After waiting for provisions, General Lewis crossed the Ohio
October 17th. Captain Lockridge was left at Point Pleasant with 119
92 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
men of the Augusta regiment. When the army had advanced 80
miles, Dunmore sent Lewis an order to return, saying that a peace was
being arranged. But the column that had done all the righting was
suspicious of the governor's intention, and the march was continued
until the governor put in a personal appearance. Each army re-
turned the way it had come, Lewis leaving 100 men to garrison the
fort built on the battleground.
The agreement between the governor and the Indians was a tem-
porary and not a final treaty. The red men were to give up all the
prisoners, valuables, and domestic animals that they had taken. They
were not to molest any boats on the Ohio, nor were they to hunt east
of that river. A more permanent treaty was made the next year. On
the side of the whites it was effected by the Americans themselves
and not by the tory governor.
The untimely death of Colonel Charles Lewis at the age of 38
was recognized as a public calamity. His personal magnetism and
his social qualities made him a leader of men. He was the youngest
of the sturdy, forceful sons of the founder of Augusta and the only
one that was born in America. No other was so brilliant and prom-
ising, or so beloved by the people. He was a captain when 21 and
a magistrate when 27. As a fighter of Indians he was one of the
most successful. He was fearless, and had he lived through the war
of the Revolution, it is safe to affirm that he would have been one
of the best known and most efficient of the American generals. Lewis
County in West Virginia is named in his honor.
Against the remonstrance of his brother Andrew, Charles Lewi*
went out on the morning of the battle of Point Pleasant arrayed in
a red coat, thus making himself too conspicuous a target. He was
stricken by a bullet before he had taken a tree. While walking to
the rear, he handed his gun to a soldier, telling the man to "go on
and be brave." To those who asked about his hurt, he replied tlr>-
it was "the fortune of the war."
His untiring energy and the public demands upon his time nr
attested by the very believable statement that after he came to man-
hood he was never home more than a month at a time. Like all
the Lewis brothers he was practical and thrifty. The tract of 950
acres of fine river bottom that his father selected for him became the
plantation of Fort Lewis. He acquired other lands himself, includ-
THE POINT PLEASANT CAMPAIGN
ing several surveys on the Greenbrier. His will, dated precisely two
months before his death, was proved by John Dickenson and Charles
Cameron, the latter being his brother-in-law. The appraisement of
his personality, which totaled nearly $4000, was entrusted to John
Cowarden, Thomas Feamster, and John and Robert McCreery.
Such possessions as 24 horses, 96 cattle, 43 sheep, and 50 hogs made
Colonel Lewis a wealthy planter. The will and inventory mention
eight slaves and a white man servant, furniture valued at $117.58, a
bookcase at $16.67, a looking glass at $10, and a suit of brown
clothes at $30. All this indicates a comparative degree of luxury,
when we stop to consider that a dollar would go much farther then
than now. His watch, scheduled at $30, was probably the one for
which his father left hm a special legacy, and provided that his own
initials should be engraved thereon as a token of esteem and affection.
Charles Lewis was spare of figure and upward of six feet in
height. He was married to Sarah Murray in 1761. Their children
were -ilizabeth, Margaret, John, Mary, Thomas, Andrew, and
Charles. John, who married Rachel Miller, inherited \hc home-
stead, where he died in 1843 at the age of 77. Colonel Andrew
Lewis wedded Margaret Stuart and died in 1833, aged 61. Charles,
Jr. was borr a ht'le after his father set out on lv.s last expedition. He
was married to Jane Dickenson in 1799 and died only four years later
Thomas and Mary lived single. The husband of Margaret was Ma-
From miscellaneous courses we gather the following names of
men who served in the expedition to Point Pleasant. Nearly or quite
all of them must have served under Colonel Charles Lewis:
Ward, James (Capt.)
Ward, Wm. (Sergt.)
Wilson, Wm. (Sergt.)
BATH DURING THE REVOLUTION
ITH respect to Virginia soil there were three stages in the
war for American Independence. There was first the
campaign against Dunmore, which was confined to the
counties on Chesapeake Bay, and it came to an end with
the expulsion of the tory governor early in 1776. Next came the
invasion by Arnold and Cornwallis, limited to the country east of
the Blue Ridge and to the 10 months closing with the surrender of
Cornwallis in October, 1781. The last stage was the warfare with
the Indians, which was carried on west of the Blue Ridge, and prin-
cipally west of the Alleghanies. It lasted intermittently from the
summer of 1776 until after the treaty with England in 1783. The
British never came nearer to Bath than Charlottesville. The only
practical danger was from the Indians, and they do not appear to have
come inside the present limits of the county.
The soldiers of the Revolution were of three classes: the militia,
called out only on special emergency; the provincials, or state
troops, enlisted for home defense by the state governments; and the
continentals, enlisted for long terms under the direct authority of
the Continental Congress. The continentals were trained soldiers
and consequently the most efficient and dependable. The militia
came direct from their homes on absurdly short "tours of duty." Not
onl\ were they untrained, but they were imperfectly under the con-
trol of their officers. Hence they were easily demoralized, and at
such a time each man took no thought except to look out for himself.
They were seldom on the actual firing line, and when they did get
into a real engagement, they were very much inclined to take to their
heels. Yet on several occasions their behavior was all that could
reasonably be asked.
As in the case of other counties, the able-bodied white adults of
Bath were with few exceptions enrolled as militia. But the records
of the Revolution are so brief and incomplete that we can affirm
very little as to the names of its citizens who were enrolled as pri-
BATH DURING THE REVOLUTION 95
vates in the militia companies, or in the continental and provincial or-
ganizations. With respect to the officers our informaton is more
General Andrew Lewis was placed in charge of the operations
against Dunmore, and he soon drove the hated governor to the shelter
of the British fleet. His campaign was far from the mountains and
on a small scale, and we do not certainly know that any Bath men
took part in it. Arnold's marauding career on the lower James,
and the approach of Cornwallis in the spring of 1781 were far more
serious. Nearly 1700 of the Virginia militia took part in the battle
of Guilford, where their conduct was unusually good, owing to a
stiffening in their companies of some experienced men who had seen
service in Washington's army. Among these troops were militiamen
from this county under Robert McCreery, John Bollar, and David
Gwin. Gwin's men, and probably the other commands also, rode on
horseback until they had crossed the Dan into North Carolina. The
horses were then sent home under guard. Robert Sitlington, Wil-
liam Gillespie, and James Sloan were privates under McCreery.
Sitlington grieved at the loss of the knife he had used as a gun-rest.
"Bullets," he said, "were flying so thick that by God, sir, I had to
leave that knife sticking where it was."
At Guilford the Virginia militia gave a good account of them-
selves. Their deadly rifle-fire repelled several assaults by the red-
coats. Cornwallis was virtually defeated and his shattered army
was driven to the sea coast. He gave up his attempt to subdue North
Carolina and joined Arnold at Petersburg. While the British lead-
er was pursuing the small American army under Lafayette, his cavalry
under Tarleton burned the little village of Charlottesville, where
the Assembly was in session. The legislature fled to Staunton, and
sat there from June 7th to June 23d. But Tarleton remembered his
overthrow at Cowpens and did not try to force his way through
Rockfish Gap. He seems to have had a wholesome respect for the
Scotch-Irish militia of the VaUey. The whole British army pres-
ently fell back toward the coast.
There were now heavy calls on the militia. Perhaps a larger
number of Bath men were at the front than were present at Guil-
ford. On the peninsula between the James and the York they saw
fightng under Colonels Robert McCreery and Sampson Mathews,
96 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Mathews had been south of the James the preceding winter, as a part
of the force under General Steuben, who was watching Arnold, at
Portsmouth. McCreery and Mathews were in the battle of Green
Spring, which took place near Jamestown, July 6th. Under Mc-
Creery were the horsemen of Captain Peter Hull. Under Mathews
were Captains David Gwin, Thomas Hicklin, William Kincaid, and
John Brown. Brown was taken prisoner and was succeeded by
Charles Cameron, who had served as adjutant. Brown's lieutenant
was Robert Thompson. Gwin's subalterns were Lieutenant William
McCreery and Ensign Alexander Wright. Hicklin's were Lieuten-
ant Joseph Gwin and Ensign Thomas Wright.
At Yorktown, where the redcoats in Virginia laid down their
arms, about 3000 of the state militia were present. There was no
further attempt by the British to prosecute the war with their own
men. Within and beyond the mountains, the case was different.
For nearly three years after their experience at Point Pleasant, the
Ohio Indians remained quiet. But being stirred up by British emis-
saries, whose home government did not scruple to turn loose the
savages on women and children as well as men, they once more began
to raid the settlements beyond the Alleghanies. Still earlier on the
warpath were the Cherokees, who in 1776 became troublesome in the
valley of the Holston.
The menace from the Indians was enough to make it necessary to
garrison such posts as Fort Dinwiddie. During the two years be-
ginning with the fall of 1776, Captains John Lewis, Robert Mc-
Creery, Andrew Lockridge, and Samuel McCutchen were by turns
in command at this point. Captain John McKittrick was here in
the early summer of 1 780. The stockade was burned by a tenant in
the spring of the same year, but for what cause we do not know.
During the summer of 1777 there was a guard of six men at William
Wilson's at the mouth of Bolar Run. Fort Warwick on The Green-
brier was held the same year by Captain John Lewis, and the next
year by Captain Samuel Vance, whose lieutenant was John Cart-
mil]. Vance became a lieutenant colonel in 1782.
Augusta companies were also marched into Bath, either to gar-
rison the local posts or to proceed to the Greenbrier and Tygart's
Valley rivers, or even to the Ohio and Monongahela. In 1777.
John Dickenson, now a colonel, led his regiment to Point Pleasant,
BATH DURING THE REVOLUTION 97
whence General Hand was to march against the Indian towns on the
Scioto. Through a seeming lack of energy that officer contented
himself with announcing the surrender of Burgoyne and then dis-
missing the troops. A few days before the arrival of General Hand,
Cornstalk was treacherously murdered by the militia from Rock-
bridge. Next May the Shawnees sought to avenge his death by at-
tacking the fort of Andrew Donally in Greenbrier. They were
beaten off before the relief column under Captains Tate, Buchanan,
and Long could arrive. About this time Captain Lockridge was at
Vance's fort, and a year later at Clover Lick, both points being in
the Greenbrier valley. So late as 1782 Captain George Poage was
stationed at Clover Lick. Even a year later Colonel Sampson
Mathews reported an alarm at that place, and the wife of Christo-
pher Graham of the Bullpasture thought it advisable to flee with her
child to Deerfield on the east side of Shenandoah Mountain. So
far as we know, this was the last Indian alarm in this region, although
so late as 1788 Juhn Stuart, of Greenbrier, feared that Indians
and foreigners would drive out all the people west of the Blue Ridge.
Not until Wayne's treaty with the Indians in 1795 was the peril
In 1780, Thomas Hughart, John McCreery, and Andrew Lock-
ridge were respectively colonel, lieutenant colonel, and major of the
Second Battalion of the Augusta militia. Other local officers not
already named were Captains John Given, James Hicklin, and John
Oliver; Lieutenants Samuel Black, James Bratton, Samuel McClin-
tic, and Robert McFarland; and Ensigns Thomas Catrmill, Jona-
than Humphrey, and Moses McClintic.
During the war the machinery of local government moved about
as usual. Yet there was much hardship. Foreign trade was pre-
carious on account of the British war vessels hovering along the coast.
There was no good money except specie. The paper bills issued by
the Congress became more and more worthless. In the spring of
1781 it took $140 in paper to go as far as $1 in coin. The previous
October, James Bratton, as keeper of an inn, rendered a bill against
Anthony Mustoe for $150 for seven meals, four lodgings, and a few
glasses of liquor. The taxes were very oppressive, and although they
could be paid in produce, some persons refused to pay them at all,
and some officers refused to make collections.
98 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
To draw the line between patriot and tory, a law of 1777 re-
quired that an oath of allegiance be administered to the citizens.
Richard Mayse was assigned to this duty in the territory covered by
the militia companies of Captains Dean and Robinson.
This district seems to have been nearly free from tory disturbanc-
es, such as took place on the South Branch to the northward or in
Montgomery County to the southward. In fact, the only exception
of which we have any positive knowledge is narrated by Colonel
Skillern, of Botetourt, in a letter to Governor Nelson, dated June 26,
1781. He states that about four years earlier, Captain Lapsley had
taken as recruits Solomon Carpenter and Samuel Lyons, telling them
they were to go into Washington's bodyguard and to have 3^ shil-
lings a day. Finding this representation untrue on their arrival at
the army headquarters, the men deserted, came home, and hid in the
mountains. At the date of the letter there were supposed to be from
40 to 50 men in their band. Attempts to disperse them and capture
their leader had failed. The two men in question came to Skillem's
house under a flag, offering to serve subject to call during two years
in the county militia or to join George Rogers Clark for two
years. Skillern recommends acceptance of the terms. Carpenter, a
bold, daring, active man, had been with the Indians some time, and
intimated that if his terms were not accepted he would go back to
them. His comrades were active woodsmen, well armed with rifles,
and might become dangerous. The writer adds that there were par-
ties of tories and deserters in Montgomery and Washington, who
were probably in correspondence with one another.
Aside from the officers we have mentioned, the following men of
the Dunmore and Revolutionary wars appear to have belonged with-
in the Bath area or nearly so:
Black,. Alexander, Jr. Mayse, Joseph — wounded at
Black, James Point Pleasant
Black, William McAvoy, Hugh — killed
Burnside, James McFarland, Alexander — wounded
Byrd, John Montgomery, James
Cowarden, John Sitlington, Robert
Gillespie, William Sloan, James
Some of the pensioners of the Revolution, whose names appear in
BATH DURING THE REVOLUTION 99
1832, were born elsewhere, or settled in this country after that war.
Among them were Richard Cole, an Englishman, who enlisted in Bath
in 1780; William Keyser, of Glouchester County; Andrew McCaus-
land and William Bonner, of Pennsylvania; and John Putnam, of
This chapter would not be complete without some mention of that
eccentric and masculine woman, known to American border history
as Mad Ann Bailey. She was given this name because of her iras-
cible Welch temper. Her maiden name was Dennis, and she was
a native of Liverpool. She came to Staunton at the age of 13, and ten
years later wedded James Trotter, who was killed at Point Pleasant.
The pair had a son named William, who was born in 1767. Ann
Bailey left her child with Mrs. Moses Mann, a near neighbor, put on
masculine apparel, and for several years was a hunter and scout.
One of her reasons for adopting such an unfeminine career was to
avenge the death of her husband. According to tradition she took
more than one scalp. Her most famous exploit was her relief of
Fort Lee, which stood where the city of Charleston, West Virginia,
afterward arose. The stockade was besieged by Indians, the powder
gave out, and it was very dangerous for a courier to get past the
assailants. But Mad Ann volunteered, rode swiftly on her horse
"Liverpool" to Fort Union — now Lewisburg, — and came back with
an extra horse with a fresh supply of powder. This was in 1791,
when she was 49 years of age. For a year or so, she lived in a hut
on Mad Ann's Ridge, on the south side of Falling Spring Run. On
one occasion her black horse went on to Mann's without his rider. A
party from the stockade went out to follow the trail, and located
Mad Ann by airholes in the snow. She had failed asleep, either from
liquor or drowsiness. According to Ann Royall, who knew her in
her old age, she could both drink and swear.. In 1785 she married
James Trotter. Her last years were spent on the farm of her only
son, who settled in Gallia County, Ohio. Eccentric to the last, she
refused to live in his comfortable house, and stayed in a cabin near
by, which she built herself. Here she died in 1825 at the age of 83.
In 1901 her remains were reinterred in the memorial park at Point
Pleasant. In personal appearance, Mrs. Bailey was short, stout,
coarse, and masculine, yet affable and pleasing. She wore a coat in-
stead of a gown and she could read and write. While ranging the
100 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
forest she "hahvays carried a hax and a hauger and could chop as
well as any man."
The longest of Colonel Dickenson's letters that we have seen is
addressed to General Edward Hand, and is of this tenor:
Point Pleasant Near Fort Randolph
. 7th Novr 1777
Dear Sr — Colo Skilron from Bottetourt and myself from augusta arived
here with our Troops from Each County the 5th Instant whare we flattered
our selves of the hapyness of meeting yr Excelency but being Disapointed
Do greatly fear that some accident or Disapointment has fell in yr Way
Which I should be hearttely sorry for our No. of Troops are Not men-
tioned here as the strength of the Whol is Inclosed in Capt. Arbuckles Let-
ter agree able to yr Excelencys Instructions to your county Lieutnt. We
brought Flour and salt seficiant only to bring us to this place as we ware
greatly Detained on our march by Rain and high Waters. We Expected to
have met with a seficiant supply of provisions here but to our great morti-
fication found the garison out of salt and very scarce of Flour tho Wile we
have Beef are Willing to surmount every Deficasy and hardship until We
Either see or hear from yr Excelency. our Troops are extremely good In
general and in high spirits Keen for the Expedition under a Commander of
so great a Caracter as yrself
I am Dear general tho unacquainted Yr Excelencys most obedient and
very Hbie Servt
SELIM THE ALGERINE
HE STORY of Selim, a native of Algeria, is perhaps the
most picturesque incident in the early annals of Bath.
Between 1764 and 1774 Samuel Given was hunting on
the Greenbrier. He had at least one extra horse for
carrying home the game he hoped to secure. In the top of a fallen
tree he espied an object which he at first took to be a wild animal,
and he came very near firing into it. A more deliberate glance satis-
fied him that what he saw was a human being, but not an Indian.
Going to the tree he found a man in a most pitiable condition. He
was stark naked except for some rags wrapped about his feet. His
body was very much emaciated, and his skin was thickly marked by
scars and scabs. In a word he was in an advanced stage of starvation.
Neither man could understand the other's language, and they
could converse only by signs. The hunter at once made himself a
Good Samaritan. He took as good care of the unfortunate stranger
as was possible under the circumstances. In giving him something to
eat, he prudently allowed very little at first, and increased the amount
as the digestive organs of the famished man began to recover their
normal tone. After a few days the patient had gained enough
strength to be able to ride the led horse. He was now taken to the
home of Captain John Dickenson and made welcome after the open-
hearted manner of the frontier. He remained with Dickenson sev-
eral months, meanwhile recovering his strength and rapidly acquiring
the ability to converse with his new friends. At length it became
possible for him to tell who he was, and how he had failed into the
plight from which he was so providentially rescued.
His name was Selim and he was a son of a wealthy Algerine. The
father sent him to Constantinople for an advanced education. While
the young man was returning home his ship was captured by a Span-
ish man-of-war. He was transferred to a French vessel bound for
New Orleans. The Algerines as well as the other nations of Bar-
bary were at this time great pirates. They made slaves of their cap-
102 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
tives and were themselves treated with scant consideration whenever
they fell into the hands of any of the Europeans. From New Or-
leans Selim was taken to the Shawnee towns on the Scioto. A white
woman, also a prisoner of the Indians, told him by signs that she
came from the east. Selim knew there were English colonies on the
Atlantic shore and judged correctly that she came from that quarter.
He found an opportunity to escape from the Indians, and tried to find
the white settlements, so that he might return to his own people.
He had nearly succeeded when stumbled upon by Given. But he
had found little to eat except nuts and berries and became too weak
for any farther progress. The bushes and briars had torn his cloth-
ing into shreds, and these he had wrapped about his feet to give them
some protection. His exposed skin had been so often lacerated by
thorns and other obstacles as to present the condition observed by the
hunter. He had resigned himself to a death by starvation or by wild
beasts, and for a last resting place had chosen the top of the tree in
which he was found.
Dickenson treated the unfortunate Moor with a noble generosity.
He gave him a horse to ride and took him to see the neighbors of the
settlement. Selim accompanied his host to Staunton, at a time when
the county court was sitting, and there attracted much notice. The
attention of the Algerine was particularly fixed upon the Presbyter-
ian minister, John Craig, who lived near the town. Selim asked
the privilege of going home with the preacher and the request was
granted. He then explained his reason. He told Mr. Craig that
during his journey through the forest the pangs of hunger caused
vivid dreams. In one of these visions he saw marshaled in military
order on an immense plain a vast assemblage of people, all dressed
alike. In the distance was a person of distinguished appearance.
Every now and then some member of the throng would undertake to
go to him, but when half way there would suddenly disappear into a
pit. Other persons, who asked directions of an old man standing by
himself, passed safely across. Mr. Craig was recognized as the old
man seen in the dream, and it was for this reason that Selim asked to
go home with him. He wished to be instructed in the principals of
Christianity. The French had tried to make him a convert, but his
Mohammedan train ing made him think the use of images by the
SELIM THE ALGERINE 103
Catholics was a form of idolatry. Selim was a quick pupil. He un-
derstood the Greek language and probably had a better insight into
the meaning of the Greek Testament than the minister himself. Se-
lim embraced Christianity and was baptized at the old Stone Church.
But at length the Moor expressed a longing to go to his old home,
and could not be moved from his purpose. Some money was raised
through the efforts of Mr. Craig, who also gave him a letter of in-
troduction to Robert Carter, a member of the House of Burgesses
from Westmoreland. The legislature was then in session at Wil-
liamsburg. Mr. Carter did all that was asked of him, and Selim
was thus enabled to recross the Atlantic.
After some years the Algerine reappeared at Dickenson's with a
disordered mind. In his lucid moments he said he had been home,
but that his father would have nothing to do with him on account of
his acceptance of Christianity. At Warm Springs he was much
pleased with the gift of a Greek Testament by a young minister
named Templeton. He visited Mr. Carter, and wherever he ap-
peared he aroused great sympathy. John Page, when governor of
Virginia, took him to Philadelphia and had his portrait painted by
Rembrandt Peale, the celebrated artist. From that city he accompa-
nied a man of South Carolina to his home. He returned to Virginia,
and in Prince Edward County learned to sing the hymns by Watts.
For a while he was an inmate of the hospital for the insane at Wil-
liamsburg. At a date unknown, but which must have been some
years later than 1805, he died at a private house.
Thus the story of Selim is pathetic as well as unusual. It is
gratifying to know that he was treated with great kindness by the
strange people he tried so hard to reach.
EFFORTS TOWARD A NEW COUNTY
( E HAVE seen that Botetourt was set off from Augusta
in 1769. Eight years later Rockingham and Rockbridge
were formed and Augusta was reduced to its present
breadth, north and east. But westward it still reached
beyond the Alleghanies. The greater portion of it lay to the west
of Shenandoah Mountain. This broad and lofty range is indicated
by nature as a political boundary. It is even yet very largely a
wilderness. Nothing could be more certain than that the people
living on the farther side would agitate for a new county just as soon
as there might be any possibility of realizing this desire.
Bath was not actually established until the closing month of 1790.
And yet it was almost thirteen years earlier that the first petition for
this purpose was sent up to the General Assembly. This petition
with its signers will be found at the close of the present chapter.
Slightly more than a year later there was a second petition, whch in-
cluded the request that the courthouse site be located in the valley o?
the Cowpasture. A third petition, presented in the very same year-
1779 — asked that the proposed county include portions of Botetoir
and Rockbridge lying in the Cowpasture and Jackson's River valleys.
It was represented that in order to attend court some of the petitioners
had to travel a hundred miles and cross high mountains and rapid
streams. Some of the movers for the new county wanted the valley
of the Calfpasture included.
Notwithstanding the energy shown in these efforts, the time
was not favorable to immediate action. The people of Virginia had
to struggle with high taxation and depreciated paper money. The
Revolution had not yet been fought to a finish, and much attention
was necessarily bestowed upon the British, the tories, and the In-
dians. In 1780 and 1781, British armies were ravaging the country
east of the Blue Ridge. So we need not feel surprised that no fur-
ther effort was made until after the return of peace.
In 178S there was a petition signed by 522 men, John McCreery.
Alexander Black. John Kincaid, and John Lewis, of Warm Springs.
EFFORTS TOWARD A NEW COUNTY 105
being active in the movement. In October, 1788, there was another
paper, the petitioners saying that their troubles with the Indians had
prevented them from addressing the Assembly at an earlier date. The
settlers west of the Alleghany were strenuous in their appeal. They
urge as a strong consideration the fact that there was now a wagon
road to Kentucky to take the place of the pioneer bridle-path.
The petition below was written by a man of lame scholarship and
does not compare favorably with the general run of the formal docu-
ments of the colonial era.
13th April 1778
To the Honble Specker & Gentilmen Deligates setting now
The Petision of the Inhabitance of Cow and Calf pastures Bull pasture
Jackson River and Back Creek Humbly Sheweth
That yr pensioners Not only at present but for many years past have
Labored under so great and grievous Disadvantages by Reason of the
great Distance the most of us yr petisioners Lives from our Courts of Jus-
tice from forty and fifty and others Near seventy Miles from our Nearest
Court House besides those on our plantation in the upper end of green bryer
at thirty and forty miles farther Back Not to Mention Tygers valley which
is yet Dependent on Augusta, so it would be Better for the most of us to
put up with small Losses and Injuries Don to us than to attend our present
courts for common Justice at so great a Distance and specially in theze
Extravagant Times therefore we yr petisioners Humbly prays that our
great Deficulty and hardships may be Removed by granting us a New coun-
ty of our Own and as som of us yr petisioners Inhabiters of the Calf pasture
are Lately Thrown into Rockbridge County much against our minds and
Inclinations as its vastly more Inconvenient than stanton and worse Road,
therefore the VVhol of us yr petisioners Humbly prays that our County if
granted may be struck of from augusta and Rock Bridge Counties by the
Dividing Waters on the Top of the North Mountain The Lower End to be-
gin on the Top of sd Mountain square with the Mouth of the Cowpasture
River from thence to the Lower End of William Manns plantation at the
mouth of the fawling spring on James River then to continue on a south
line to the Waters of Green Bryer from the Beginning; the upper End Like-
wise to begin on the Top of sd North Mountain opposite to the upper Inhab-
iters of the Calf Pasture and from thence to the hd waters of Cow and Bull
pastures then on a South Line to the Waters of Green Bryer from the Be-
ginning; and as our Bounds is very Extensif and Inhabitance plenty in
Number and Seficient Curcomstance to make good all Necessary public
Buildings Required by Law We Earnestly pray that your goodness may Take
our Case into yr consideration and grant our petision alowing our Court
House to be Built in the Cowpasture where it may be sentrable and a greed
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
upon by the Majority of us yr pensioners &c We Rest in suspense in hopes
of success in our Request.
And we as in Duty Bound shall pray
Robt. Lough ridge
Jas. Clements, Senr
James Rucker Jenr
Wm. Daughherty. Jenr
William Maze, Jenr
Thos. Galaspy, Jenr
John Wilson, Jenr
Joseph Mayse, Sr.
Joseph Mayse, Jr.
Loftis pulin, Junr
Alexr. Crockett, Senr
Joseph Green, Jr.
Wm. Daugherty, Senr
Richard Maze, Junr
Robert McCreery Junr
Christian Snider Jr
ORGANIZATION OF BATH
HE efforts to divide what was left of Augusta County
finally bore fruit. The following Act of Assembly was
passed December 14, 1790:
SECT. 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That from and after
the first day of May next, all those parts of the counties of Augusta, Bote-
tourt, and Greenbrier, within the following bounds, to-wit, beginning at
the west corner of Pendleton County, thence to he top of the ridge, dividing
the head waters of the South branch from those of Jackson's river, thence
a straight line to the lower end of John Redman's plantation on the Cow-
pasture river, thence to the top of the ridge that divides the waters of the
Cowpasture from those of the Calfpasure, thence along the same as far as
the ridge that divides Hamilton's creek from Mill creek, thence to the Mill
mountain, and with the same to the north corner of the line of Rockbridge
County, thence along the said mountain crossing the line of Botetourt Coun-
ty, to the ridge that divides the waters of Pad's creek from those of Simp-
son's creek, thence along the said ridge to the Cowpasture river, thence
crossing the said river a direct course and crossing Jackson's river, at the
mouth of Dunlap creek, thence up the same as far as the narrows above
the plantation of David Tate, so as to leave the inhabitants of the said
creek in Botetourt County, thence a direct course to the top of the Alleghany
mountain, where the road from the Warm Springs crosses the said moun-
tain, thence along the top of the said mountain opposite the head waters
of Anthony's creek, thence a direct course crossing Greenbrier river to the
end of the Droop mountain, thence up the same to the great Greenbrier
mountain, thence along the said mountain to the line of Randolph County,
thence with the same along the said mountain dividing the waters of Mo-
nongalia and Cheat from those of Greenbrier river, and thence to the be-
ginning, shall form one distinct county, and be called and known by the
name of Bath.
SECT. 2. A court for the said county of Bath shall be held by the
justices thereof on the second Tuesday in every month after the same shall
take place, in like manner as is provided by law for other counties, and
shall be by their commissions directed; and the court of quarterly sessions
for the said county of Bath shall be held in the months of March, May,
August and November in every year.
SECT. 3. The justices to be named in the commission of the peace for
the said county of Bath, shall meet at the house of Margaret Lewis at the
108 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Warm Springs, in the said count}-, upon the first court day after the said
county takes place, and having taken the oaths prescribed by law, and ad-
ministered the oath of office to, and taken bond of the sheriff according to
law, proceed to appoint and qualify a clerk, and fix upon a place for hold-
ing courts in the said county, at or as near the center thereof, as the situa-
tion and convenience will admit of; and thenceforth the said court shall
proceed to erect the necessary public buildings at such place, and until such
buildings shall be completed, to appoint any place for holding courts, as they
shall think proper. Provided always, That the appointment of a place for
holding courts, and of a clerk, shall not be made unless a majority of the
justices of the said county be present; where such majority shall have been
prevented from attending by bad weather, or by their being at the time out
of the county, in such cases the appoinment shall be postponed until some
court day, when a majority shall be present.
SECT. 4. The governor with advice of the council shall appoint a person
to be sheriff of the said county, who shall continue in office during the term,
and upon the same conditions as are by law appointed for other sheriffs.
SECT. 5. Provided always, That it shall be lawful for the sheriffs of
each of the said counties of Augusta, Botetourt and Greenbrier, to collect
and make distress for any public dues or officers fees which shall remain
unpaid by the inhabitants thertof, at the time the said county shall take
place, and shall be accountable for the same in like manner as if this act
had not been made. And the courts of the said counties shall have juris-
diction of all actions and suits which shall be depending before them, at
the time said county of Bath shall take place; and shall try and determine
the same and award execution thereon.
SECT. 6. In all further elections of a senator, the said county of Bath
shall be of the same district as the county of Augusta.
SECT. 7. And be it further enacted, That all that part of the county of
Augusta lying on the headwaters of the Bullpasture and Cowpasture riv-
ers, not included within the limits of the county hereby established, shall
be and the same is hereby added to the county of Pendeton.
SECT. 8. The said county of Bath shall be included in the district with
the said county of Augusta, for which a court is to be holden in Staunton.
A portion of the original Bath lay in the Greenhrier valley. This
was at the request of the people who were living there. About 1796
some of the people on Anthony's Creek several times petitioned to be
annexed to Rath.
The first session of the county court of Rath convened May 10,
1791, at the home of the widow of Captain John Lewis. A part of
the proceedings took place under a large shade tree, but later in the
year the court voted Mrs. Lewis the sum of seven pounds for the use
of her two-roomed house.
ORGANIZATION OF BATH 109
The justices present on the opening day were John Bollar, John
Dean, John Poage, William Poage, Samuel Vance, and John Wilson.
Sampson Mathews was the first sheriff and Charles Cameron the first
clerk, the bond of each being fixed at 1000 pounds ($3,333.33).
William Poage became the first surveyor, and Samuel Vance the first
coroner. The first attorneys were John Cotton, James Reid, and
Archibald Stuart. The members of the first grand jury were Joseph
Mayse (foreman), Samuel Black, Thomas Brock, John Dilley, James
Hamilton, James Hughart, Owen Kelley, John Lynch, John Mc-
Clung, Samuel McDonald, John Montgomery, Joseph Rhea, Wil-
liam Rider, Robert Stuart, and Stephen Wilson. There was an ap-
propriation of 25 shillings ($4.17) for blank books for the county
According to the usage of the time, the first court defined the
minimum rates for entertainment at taverns. The figures are as be-
low when reduced from shillings and pence to Federal money.
Dinner .21 Stabling and hay, 1 night .16 2-3
Breakfast or supper .16 2-3 Pasturage, one night .08
Cold supper .12^ West India rum, per gill .07
Lodging .08 Common whiskey, per gill .04
Corn or oats, per gallon .10J^ Cider, per quart .08
The first misdemeanor of which the court took notice was the
striking in its presence of John McCarty by Abraham Thompson.
Thompson was fined $10. Next year both Thompson and Captain
Thomas Lewis were summoned to answer the charge of rescuing
property from the sheriff. In 1792 it was ordered that 30 lashes on
the bare back be administered to a person who had stolen some goods.
The first minister of the Gospel to present the necessary creden-
tials was Charles Clark of the Presbyterian Church. The second —
in 1796 — was John Pinnell of the Methodist Church.
The portion of the county west of the Alleghany Front was di-
vided into two constable districts.
In April, 1792, Samuel Vance and John O'Hara were elected
over John Brown and George Poage as delegates to the legislature.
The largest number of votes polled was 217. The number of men
subject to poll tax was 769, and about one-half of them were pre-
sented by the grand jury for failing to vote.
110 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
After holding office one year, the first sheriff resigned and went
to Augusta. He was succeeded by John Bollar, Sampson Mathews,
Jr., becoming his deputy.
About this time the first mill license under Bath was granted to
Hazael Willams on Lick Run. John Lyle and Michael Bowyer
were named as practicing attorneys.
In 1793 a deputy sheriff reported delinquent taxes to the amount
of $75.93. The poll tax for that year was $256.33.
And thus the county of Bath was launched upon its independent
THE SURNAMES OF BATH
Heads of Families in 1782
HE personal property books of 1872 are the oldest that
have been preserved. Tithables, slaves, horses, and cattle
are indicated, respectively, by T, S, h, and c. Where a
T preceded by a numeral does not occur, there is but
List by Captain James Bratton of the Calfpasture:
Adams, Thomas— 2T — 4-OS— 13h — 43c— also 1 chariot
Armstrong, Archibald — Hh — 16c
Bell, John— 4h— 12c
Black, Rebeckah— 6h— lie
Bratton, James — 3S — 14h — 19c
Bratton, Adam — 8h
Warick, Jacob, Esq.
Wiley, Robert, Sr.
Wiley, Robert, Jr.
Wilson, John Esq.
of 476 tithables, 132 slaves, 1376 horses, 6
Second District — John Oliver, Assessor
Alderman, Ezekl Alford, Talithain Armstrong, Robert
THE SURNAMES OF BATH
Armstrong, Robert, Jr.
Brindly, James, Sr.
Brindly, James, Jr.
Byrnsides, John —
Dean, John, Esq.
Erwin, John (river)
Jones, John W.
McClintick, Alice (wid-
Nants, (Nance), James
Robinson, William, Sr.
Robinson, James, Esq.
Stinson, (Stevenson), Jas.
Stinson, James, Jr.
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
There was a total of 224 tithables, 44 slaves, 664 horses, and 5
Grand total for Greater Bath: Tithables, 790; slaves, 176;
horses, 2040 ; studs, 1 1 ; carriage wheels, 4.
The surnames below are grouped according to color, and are taken
from the books of the county treasurer, as the list stood, June 1, 1913.
The abbreviations are these: W for Williamsville District, M for
Miilboro, WS for Warm Springs, and C for Cedar Creek. Where
a figure follows such abbreviation, it indicates the number of taxable
individuals bearing the same surname. Where no figure is given,
there was only one such person.
Adams — M
Agnew— WS, 2
Ailstock — M, 6
Anderson — WS,
Ayers — C
Bartley — M
Barksdale — M
Beckner — C
Bird— W— WS
Blankenship — C
Bogan— WS, 4
Bonner— WS, 10
p„,,ki n _W_c
Bovvers — C, 2
Bowman — M, 2
Bradshaw — W
Branscome — C
Bratton— M, 3— WS, 4
Bright— WS, 3— M
Brink ley— W, 4— C
Brockway — M
Brooks— M, 2
Brown — M
Bulger — M
Burger — C
Burns— W, 10— WS, 3— C, 2
Bussard— 'WS— C
Butler— W, 3
Callahan — C
Cameron— W — C
Campbell— W, 3— WS— C, 2
Canthorn — M
Carpenter— W, 6— C, 4
THE SURNAMES OF BATH
Cauley— WS, 6— M— C, 4
Challender— C, 2
Chaplin— C, 3
Chapman — C
Chestnut— WS, 2
Clarkson— M, 2— C
Cleek— M— WS, 6— C, 3
Connor — C, 3
Corbett— WS, 2
Coursey — W, 2
Criser— M— WS, 5— C
Curry— W, 3— WS, 4
Daggy — M, 2
Daniel — M
Davenny — M
Davenport — M
Davidson — M
Deaner — C
Deeds — M, 6
Dempsey — M
Dickenson— »M, 2
Dineen — C
Douglass — M, 3
Driscoll— C, 2
Dudley— C, 3
Durham — M, 2
Eakle— WS, 2
Edenton — 'C
Edmondson — M, 2
Ervine — W, 2
Estes — M
Fertig— M— C
Fitzgerald — C
Fleishman — C
Fountaine — C
Fox— WS, 2
Gardner — W
Garland — M
George — l WS
Gillespie— C, 2
Ginger— WS, 3
Grady — M
Graham — W
Greaver — C
Green— M—C— WS
Grinsted — C
Grose — C, 6
Grose— C, 6
Gum— WS, 3— C
Gunton — C
Gwin— WS, 4— C, 2
Hall— W— C
Halterman — W
Hamilton— WS, 2— C
Hammack — C '
Harruff— W— M, 2
Harper — C, 2
Harris — M
Harrison — C
Hawkins — M
Hefner— WS, 2
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Helminstoller — C
Hepler— M, 3
Herman — C
Hevener — W — C
Hicklin— W, 2
Hickman— M, 2— WS
Hodge— W, 7— M— WS, 6— C, 2
Hoover^WS— C, 10
Hopkins — C, 2
Hornberger — C
Jack— W— M
Jackson — W, 6 — C, 2
Jeffrey — C
Johnson — M — C, 7
Jones — WS
Karr — M
Kayton — C
Kelley— W— WS— C
Kellison— WS, 2
Kenney — W, 2
-Keyser->WS— C, 10
Kimberlin — C
Kincaid— W, 2— M— C
King— M— C
Knittel — C
Landes— M— WS— C, 2
I.aRue— W, 2— WS— C
Law— W— WS, 2— C, 2
Lawrence — M, 2
Layman — C, 2
Lemon — M
Lewis — W
Lightner— WS, 3
Lindsay— WS, 2
Lininger — C
Linkswiler — M
Liptrap — W
Loan-W, 5— M, 5
Lockridge— W, 2— WS, 4
Loving — C, 3
Lowman — M, 3 — C
Lyle— M, 8
Mackey— W, 3
Madison — M
Manasse — C
Mann — WS, 2
Marshall— W, 7— C
Matheny — M, 4
Mathews — C
May— M, 2— C
Mayse — W, 3
McAllister— WS, 4— C, 3
McClintic— W— WS— C, 3
McClung— W, 3
McCormick— W— M, 2
McCoy— M, 2
McCray— C, 2
McElyee — C, 4
McFadden— WS— C, 2
McGowan — C
McGuffin— WS, 2
McLaughlin — M, 2 — C, 4
McMansmay — WS, 2
Miller— W, 2— M, 3— WS
Mines— WS, 3
Mustoe — C
THE SURNAMES OF BATH
Neff— W— M, 3
Newcomer — C
Newman — C
No ff singer — M
Northern — 'C
O'Farrell— WS, 2— C
Pateson — W
Payne— WS, 2— C, 2
Pelter— J M
Peters— M, 2
Pole— C, 4
Powers — C
Preston — W
Pritt— W— WS, 4— C
Puffenberger— W— WS, 2
Putnam — M, 3
Ramsey — M
Revercomb — W, 4— »C
Reynolds — M
Rhea— M, 5
Richards — C
Richardson — C, 3
Rider— WS, 3— C
Roberts— W, 5
Robertson — W — M
Robinson— W— M—WS, 2— C, 2
Rodgers— W, 3— WS, 3
Ross— W, 2— M
Rosser — W
Rowe— W— M— WS
Pucker — M
Rusmisell— W, 2
Schosleo — W
Shaffer— WS, 2
Shanks— W, 3— M
Sharp— WS, 2— C
Sheesley — WS
Showalter — WS
Simmons — W — M, 2
Simpson — M, 3
Slosser — M
Smith— W, 2— M—WS— C,
Snead— C, 2
Snyder— C, 2
Snodgrass — WS, 2
Sprouse — C, 2
Stephenson— W— M—WS, 2
Sterrett — C
Stimson — C
Stinespring — C
Stombeck — M
Swadley— W, 2
Swartz— WS— C, 2
Swearingen — W, 3 — M
Sweet— C, 2
Taliaferro — C
Tankersley — W
Taylor— W, 2
Terrell— W, 2—C, 2
Thacker — C
Thomas— M—WS, 2— C, 6
Thompson — M, 3 — C, 3
Tomblin — C
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Townson — C
Trainor — W
Vance — C
Van Derveer — M, 2
Van Lear — M
Vees — M, 4
Wade— W, 2— M
Wallace— W, 2
Wall in— C
Walton— C, 2
Wanless— W, 3
Warren— M—C, 2
Warwick— W—WS, 3
Weaver — C
White— M, 2
Wilkenson— WS, 2
Williams— W— »M, 2— C, 4
Wilson — M
Wiseman — W, 2
Withrow — M, 3
Wood— M, 3
Woodzell— W— M— WS, 2— C
Zimmerman — WS, 3 — M
A LIST OF EARLY MARRIAGES
f| HIS list of marriages that are more or less associated with
Bath history is compiled chiefly from the marriage bonds
on record at Warm Springs. Names in parentheses are
those of consorts. The dates are those of the bonds.
Where a parent is mentioned it is nearly always because the son or
the daughter was under age at the time. It is to be remembered
that a bond, like a license at the present time, was not invariably
followed by a marriage.
Previous to 1852, the applicant for a marriage permit in Vir-
ginia had to execute a bond in the office of the county clerk. The pur-
pose of the bond was to make the person answerable for any infrac-
tion of the law that might occur. The bond was likewise a license.
It was signed by the groom and by one other person, usually the
prospective father-in-law. When an applicant for matrimony was
under age the consent of the parent was filed with the bond. But
occasionally the bride wrote the consent herself. Sometimes the se-
curity on a bond was tendered in a quite informal manner, as will
appear in the letter below. A consent as well as a bond had to be
witnessed by two persons.
Below are given a letter, which speaks for itself, and a specimen
Hot Springs May the 14th 1793
Sr this is to Certify that I have no objecksons agenst Mr. Jas
Henry and my Daughter Nancy a getting Married therefore if youl
Be pleased to Grant Mr. Henry License for the Purpose youl oblige
yours Sir Martha Jevons
Mr. George Norton Came to me this day and told me
he was so farr on the Road to you for License to get Married, and he
Complains that he hase no Money to pay you with, if it is no disad-
vantage for you to lay out of the Money, I will see you paid in a
128 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
short time, and likewise I will be answerable for all damages in givinj
him the License I am Sir yr Humble Servant
June 26, 1793
1. Armstrong, John (Polly Crawford) — 1790
2. Armstrong, John (Jane Kincaid of Robert) — 1797
3. Armstrong, Archibald (Nancy Scott) — 1797
4. Baxter, William (Margaret Toms) —1788
5. Beard, Robert (Sarah Mitchell of James) — 1785
6. Berry, John (Janet Given) — 1790
7. Betty (Beaty), Andrew (Agnes Sitlington of John) — 1786
8. Black, William ( )— 1764
9. Black, Alexander (Mary Ann Ham) — 1793
10. Black, George (Elizabeth Miller of Patrick)— 1796
11. Bourland, William (Sarah Dean — or Mary?) — 1786
12. ^ratton, James ( ) — 1774
13. Bratton, Adam (Elizabeth Feamster of Thomas) — 1788
14. Bratton David (ipres Kirk .if John)— 1^99
15. Brown, Josiah (Jane Waddell)— 1801
16. Burns, Peter (Jane Miller)— 1789
17. Burns, John (Margaret Monroe) — 1801
18. Burns, Polly (James McCourt)— '1792
19. Burns, Eva (John Miller)— 1791
20. Burnside, Alexander (Elizabeth Gilliland of John) — 1800
21. Carlile, John ( )— 1762
22. Callison, Mary of Daniel (Benjamin Delany) — 1801
23. Clark, Samuel (Jane Mathews of Sampson) — 1790
24. Cleek, Elizabeth (Daniel McGlaughlin of John)— 1795
25. Cleek, Sophia (William Hartman)— '1801
26. Cleek, Margaret, (Benjamin Potts) — 1792
27. Coffey, Margaret of James (John McWilliams)— 1781
28. Corbett, Mary of Samuel (Joseph Chestnut)— 1794
29. Crawford, William (Martha Cooper)— 1786
30. Crawford, James (Mary — )— 1786
31. Crow, Thomas (Nancy Donally of Charles) — 1789
32. Davis, James (Ann Estill)— 1786
33. Dean, John ( )— 1758
34. Dean, Sarah (James Venable) — 1797
35. Dean, Mary (Samuel Depew) — 1787
36. Dickenson, Martha (John Shrewsbury) — 1793
37. Dickenson, Nancy (Joseph Kincaid) — 1795
38. Donally, Andrew ( )— 1766
39. Donally, Catharine (James Ward)— 1800
40. Daugherty, William (Mary Bridge)— 1786
A LIST OF. EARLY MARRIAGES 129
41. Daugherty, Isabella (William Nicholas) — 1796
42. Elliot, Archibald (Sarah Clark)— 1748
43. Elliott, Abraham (Nancy) Campbell)— 1786
44. Elliott, Wiliam (Agnes McCampbell)— 1788
45. Estill, Solomon ( . — ) — 1773
46. Ewing, John S. (Rebecca Cackley)— 1801
47. Ewing, William (Mary Taylor)— 1791
48. Ewing, Jean (Moses Moore) — 1786
49. Feamster, William ( )— 1763
50. Fitzpatrick, Mary (John Jones)— '1792
51. Frame, Elizabeth (John Duffield)— 1790
52. Frame, Mary (George Roebuck) — 1795
53. Frame, John (Martha Daugherty of Michael) — 1798
54. Francisco, John (Eizabeth S. Lewis) — 1798
55. Gay, Thomas (Mary Swearingen) — 1791 t
56. Gay, Samuel (Margaret Mustoe) — 1799
57. Gillespie, Mary (Samuel Blake)— 1792
58. Gillespie, Rachel of Jacob (John Sutton) — 1795
59. Gillespie, John (Comfort Griffith)— 1798
60. Gillespie, James (Elizabeth Gillespie of Simon and Rebecca) — 1779
61. Gillespie, Robert (Mary Galloway) — 1791
62. Gillespie, William (Margaret Eddy)— 1792
63. Given, William (Agnes Bratton) — 1764
64. Given, Samuel (Elizabeth Robertson) — 1785
65. Given, William (Rebecca Kenny of Matthew) — 1789
66. Given, Adam (Nancy McGuffin) — 1797
67. Given, Isabella of Agnes (Isaac Duffield) — 1795
68. Graham, Sarah (James Waddell)— 1798
69. Graham, James ( ') — 1763
70. Graham, Lancelot ( )— 1763
71. Gregory, David of Mary (Margaret Warrick) — 1786
72. Gregory, Elizabeth (John Robinson)— 1800
73. Gregory, Isaac (Hannah Given) — '1790
74. Griffith, Mary (Peter Flack)— 1793
75. Gwin, David (Violet Crawford of William)— 1790
76. Gwin, James (Jane Hicklin of John) — 1792
77. Gwin, Robert (Ursula Robinson of Peter) — 1793
78. Gwin, ( )— 1765
79. Gwin, Robert (Margaret Elliott of William)— 1785
80. Hall, James (Nancy Hicklin of Thomas)— 1785
81. Hall, Jane (Robert Hutchinson)— 1788
82. Hamilton, James (Rachel Vance of Samuel) — 1786
83. Hodge, William (Martha Benson of George) — 1800
84. Hughart, Thomas ( )— 1761
85. Hughart, Mary Elstock of Joseph of Louisa County) — 1799
86. Hughart, James (Nancy Thomas) — 1792
130 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
87. Hughart, Jane of James (Edward McGlaughlin) — 1796
88. Jackson, Rhoda (Edward Morris) — 1795
89. Jackson, H . (John Townsend) — 1786
90. Jackson, Elizabeth (David Caruthers)— "1786
91. Kelly, M a ry (Patrick McGraw)— 1798
92. Kelly, James (Margaret Sloan) — 1796
93. Kelso, James (Elizabeth Sitlington) — 1789
94. Kincaid, Andrew (Ann Poage) — 1785
95. Kincaid, David (Jennie Lockridge of Robert) — 1S00
96. Kincaid, Ferdinand (Margaret Fulton of James) — 1799
97. Kincaid, James (Jane Curry) — 1791
98. Kincaid, James (Margaret Wiatt) — 1793
99. Kincaid, John (Mary Dinwiddie) — 1786
100. Kirk, Robert (Martha Moffett)— 1785
101. Knox, Alice (Francis A. Dubois)— 1801
102. Knox, Elisha (Nancy Parker)— 1801
103. Knox, John (Sarah Robinson of Joseph) — 1793
104. Knox, William (Sarah Acklin of Green-Craig County)— 1792
105. La Rue, Abraham (Sarah Lower)— 1792
106. Laverty, Ralph ( )— 4764
107. Lewis, Charles (Sarah Murray)— 1762
108. Lewis, Charles (Ann Honce)— 1792
109. Lewis, John ( ) — '1793
110. Lewis, John (Rachel Miller)— 1789
111. Liptrap, Isaac (Mary Bright) — 1785
112. Mann, Thomas (Elizabeth Armstrong of Robert)— 1792
113. Marshall, Robert (Jean Vance)— 1792
114. Mayse, Isaac (Ruth Hicklin of Thomas) — 1788
115. Mayse, Joseph (Agnes Hicklin of Hugh) — 1787
116. Mayse, Nancy (George Shaw) — 1787
117. Mayse, Richard ( )— 1760
118. Mayse, Robert (Margaret McClenahan)— 1790
119. McAvoy, Robert (Sarah Burns)— 1798
120. McCallister, Garnett (Ann Sprowl)— 1792
121. McCallister, John (Mary Kincaid)— 1800
122. McCartney, Lucy (Zachariah Barnett)— 1792
123. McCarty, Timothy (Jane Waugh)— 1800
124. McCausland, Mary (Samson Sawyer) — 1790
125. McClintic, Jane of Robert (James Brown)— 1800
126. McClintic, Samuel (Susanna King of Adam)— 1793
127. McClung, John (Mary Stuart of Benjamin)— 1788
128. McClung, John, Jr., (Jane McClung)— 1793
129. McClung, Elizabeth of Joseph (John Moore) — 1793
130. McClung, Margaret (James Musson) — '1797
131. McCreery, John (Martha )— 1762
132. McCreery, Robert (Mary )— 1764
A LIST OF EARLY MARRIAGES 131
133. McCreery, John ( )— »1771
134. McCreery, John of Robert (Margaret Black of William) — 1787
135. McMullen, Edward ( )— 1759
136. WcWhorter, David (Barzillai McCorkle of Robert)— '1800
137. Means, High (Nancy Armstrong of Robert) — 1785
138. Milhollen, Sarah (Jeremiah Simms) — 1800
139. Miller, Patrick ( )— 1785
140. Milligan, John (Isabella Doak) — 1786
141. Montgomery, James ( ) — 1765
142. Montgomery, John ( ) — 1753
143. Montgomery, John (Sarah Hicklin) — 1785
144 Morris, Richard (— ' )— 1761
145. Morris, Frances (Abraham Garnett) — 1794
146. Payne, Lewis (Nancy Davis) — 1794
1^147. Porter, Amelia (Nimrod Bogges — Boggs?) — 1801
148. Porter, James (Catharine Hughes) — 1795
149. Porter, Nancy (Robert Nutt) — 1800
150. Ramsey, Charles (Polly Mounts)— 1801
151. Ramsey, William (Sarah Fulton)— 1794
152. Rhea, Elizabeth (Tolliver Wright)— 1797
153. Rhea, James (Margaret Still)— 1800
154. Rhea, Robert (Catherine Bailor)— '1798
155. Ross, John (Mary Harvey Davis) — 1795
156. Ross, James (Elizabeth Griffin of William)— 1795
157. Scott, Hugh (Betsy Bell)— 1800
158. Smith, Barbara of William (Joseph Warman) — 1794
159. Smith, James (Elizabeth Wilson of Robert) — 1794
^160. Smith, John (Sarah Moore of Levi and Susanna) — 1794
161. Sprowl, William ( ')— 1757
162. Stephenson, David (Mary Davis) — 1783
163. Stephenson, James (Margaret Smith) — 1796
164. Stephenson, Robert (Jane Smith of John) — 1798
165. Stephenson, Susanna (William Hughes) — 1801
166. Stewart, Isaiah (Martha Stewart) — 1786
167. Stuart, Henry (Sarah Moore) — 1791
168. Stuart, James (Nancy Moore) — '1794
169. Swearingen, Alexander (Sarah Layne) — 1800
170. Swearingen, Samuel (Hannah Scott) — 1798
171. Tharp, Daniel (Margaret Barkley)— 1795
172. Thompson, Hannah (Peyton Walker) — 1794
173. Thompson, Thomas (Jean McClung) — 1795
174. Trotter, Christopher (Prepare McClintic of William)— 1786
175. Usher, Ann of Robert (Hugh Donaho)— 1795
176. Usher, Jean of Robert (Clements Graham) — 1791
177. Usher, James (Catherine Whitesides) — 1788
178. Vance, Samuel ( ' )— 1763
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Vance, Mary of James (William Bridger) — 1795
Waddell, Isabella of Alexander (James Boggs)— 1797
Wallace, Matthew (Sarah Brown)— '1801
Ward, James (Catharine Donally)— 1800
Warwick, John ( )— 1771
Warwick, John (Mary Poage) — 1794
185. Warwick, Margaret (Adam See) — 1794
186. Wilson, John ( )— 1769
Wilson, George (Elizabeth McCreery) — 1750
Wilson, Jane (Cornelius Vanosdale) — 1785
Wooton, William (Jane Gilliland)— 1793
CROSS-INDEX TO ABOVE LIST
Donally— 31, 182
Armstrong— '112, 137
Benson — 83
Boggess — 147
Bratton — 63
Brown— 125, 181
Cackley — 46
Crawford— 1, 75
Daugherty — 53
Davis— 146, 155, 162
Delany — 22
Depew — 35
Donaho — 175
Dumeld- 1 51, 67
Feamster — 13
Fulton— 96, 151
Galloway — 61
Gillespie — 60
Given — 6, 73
Graham — 176
Hartman — 25
Hicklin— 76, 80
Hutchinson — 81
Jones — 50
Kenny — 65
Kincaid — 2, 37,
King — 126
Layne — 169
Lewis — 54
Lockridge — 95
Lower — 105
114, 115, 143
A LIST OF EARLY MARRIAGES
Mathews — '20
McClung— 128, 173
McGlaughlin— 24, 87
Miller— 10, 16, 19, 110
Mitchell — 5
Monroe — 17
Moore— 48, 129, 160, 167, 168
Mounts — 150
Murray — 107
Musson — 130
Mustoe — 56
Poage— 94, 184
Robertson — 64
Robinson— 72, 77, 103
Roebuck — 52
Sawyer — 124
Scott— '3, 170
Shaw — 116
Shrewsbury — 36
Simms — 138
Sitlington — 7, 93
Smith— 163, 164
Sprowl— 116, 120
Stuart — 127
Sutton — 58
Swearingen — 55
Thomas — 86
Toms — 4
Townsend — 89
Vance— 82, 113
Venable — 34
Waddell— 15, 68
Warrick — 71
Whitesides — 177
SEVENTY YEARS OF BATH HISTORY
N THIS chapter we can give only some of the leading
facts in our local history for the period of just seventy
years between the organization of Bath and the war of
The original Bath lay astride the Alleghany Front
and was at least three times as large as the present county. The re-
duction to the present boundaries has been by four steps.
The line between Bath and Pendleton was 20 1 /i miles long as re-
ported in the survey of 1793. It is described as leaving North
(Shenandoah) Mountain opposite the lower end of John Redmond's
plantation, and by a course running N 63^2 degrees W, crossing
Shaw's Fork below the dwelling of Thomas Deverick's, the Cowpas-
ture below the land of John Redmond, the Bullpasture below the
house of Joseph Malcom, and Crab Run below the house of Joseph
Bell, about 2y 2 miles above the Blue Hole. Thence to the top of the
Alleghany, no houses are named.
The first curtailment took place in 1796, when a strip averaging
three miles in breadth was annexed to Pendleton, the new line running
through the Dinwiddie Gap and crossing the Cowpasture at the
mouth of Shaw's Fork. The second and largest reduction came in
the winter of 1822-23, when the counties of Alleghany and Pocahon-
tas were established. The third was when Pendleton and Bath were
shortened to make room for Highland. The last was in 1847 and
was very small. It consisted of a slight change put into the Bath-
Alleghany line where it crosses the Cowpasture, so that Sheppard
Gilliland and Orlando Griffith might be citizens of Alleghany.
The original line between Bath and Alleghany is thus described:
(From the) top of Alleghany mountain where the public road crosses to
Anthony's Creek; thence to the mouth of the draft at Benjamin Thomp-
son's (deceased) on Jackson's rivr so as to leave the said public road in
Hath, and with the road as the dividing line between Alexander Mc-
( lintic and Benjamin Thompson; thence, with the dividing line, crossing
the river, to top of mountain; thence with top of mountain to intersect
SEVENTY YEARS OF BATH HISTORY 135
line run by William Herbert, and with said line to top of mountain at
Henry Massie's; thence direct to Cowpasture just below William Griffith,
leaving him in Bath; thence on direct line to top of Mill Mountain
in Bath line; thence with top of same to corner of Rockbridge on mountain
top; thence with Rockbridge line between the heads of Simpson's Creek
and Bratton's Run to top of North Mountain, passing Collier's Gap, and
thence with boundaries of Alleghany as per Act.
The section of Bath west of the Alleghany Front went to form
the greater part of Pocahontas County. A petition of 1812 had stated
that a third of the people of Bath were living between 25 and 50
miles from the courthouse.
The progressive shrinking in the county limits will largely ac-
count of the fluctations in the census returns, the figures for six
decades being as follows:
The falling off between 1800 and 1810 was not because of a di-
minished area. It was due to the heavy emigration then moving into
the seemingly boundless West. But since Bath shrank into its present
dimensions in 1847, the population has doubled, and there has been
no falling off in any ten-year period.
It is well known that a domestic animal will sometimes return to
the former home, regardless of the wishes of the owner. This is
usually soon after the migration. But in 1810 a horse returned from
Kentucky after a residence there of 15 years. It was summer time,
and instead of going at once to the Mayse place, where he had be-
longed, the animal thought it the proper thing to resume business on
his old grazing range on the mountain.
In 1853 there were seven election precincts: Courthouse, Cedar
Creek, Hamilton's, Cleek's Mill, Williamsville, Milton, and Green
Because of its summer resorts and its fertile river bottoms, Bath
has always had a large proportion of negroes as compared with other
mountain counties. Between 1810 and 1860 the percentage of blacks
136 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
increased from 19 to 27. In the latter year this county had 946
slaves and 78 free colored persons, as against 402 slaves and 27 free
colored in the adjacent county of Highland with its then larger total
A sidelight on material conditions appears in the circumstance
that while 2117 horses were reported in 1833, there were only six
coaches, five carryals, and two gigs. The total tax in that year was
With respect to its county seat and its courthouse, Bath has had a
somewhat checkered career. For the county buildings, Mrs. Mar-
garet Lewis offered to donate two acres adjacent to Warm Springs
Run, and to give free access to a cold spring. But she was in
straitened circumstances, and payment was made for the land. In
1795, her son, Thomas L. Lewis, conveyed one acre to Bath County
for $100. For the May term of 1792 the court sat in the clerk's of-
fice, and in the next month it met in the upper, or debtor's, room of
the new jail. It would not seem that the county was then entertain-
ing any boarders in its jail.
In April, 1795, a committee was appointed to prepare plans for a
courthouse of stone, the building to be 20 by 30 feet in the clear, two
stories high, and not to cost more than 500 pounds ($1666.67).
The members of the committee were John Bollar, John Dean, John
Lewis, John White, and Andrew Moore. For drawing the plans,
William Mathews was to be allowed $3. But no courthouse appears
to have been ready for more than twelve years after the county was or-
ganized. The first one was finally built opposite the grounds of the
Warm Springs hotel. The brick structure is yet standing, and though
vacant is a serviceable building.
After 1822 there were petitions for and against the removal of the
county seat to the twin hamlet of Germantown. Until Highland
County was created, there was violent opposition to such removal.
It is only within quite recent years that the change has been effected.
The justices appointed at the time of the organization of Bath
John Bollar John Leu is James Poage
Charles Cameron Sampson Mathews Samuel Shrewsbury
Alexander Crawford John Oliver Samuel Vance
John Dean John Peebles Jacob Warrick
John Dickenson George Poape John White
John Kincaid William Poape John Wilson
SEVENTY YEARS OF BATH HISTORY 137
Warrick and the Poages were from beyond the Alleghany. Pee-
bles and Wilson lived in what is now Highland County. Crawford
and White seem to have represented the Alleghany area. Crawford
and Dickenson refused to serve. Bollar, Mathews, and White com-
prised the committee to build a jail, which was the first county
building to come into existence. Cameron, who lived at Fassifern,
used a little stone building on his farm as the first county clerk's of-
The later justices, for the 32 years during which Bath was
"Greater Bath," were the following, so far as we can ascertain their
names. The dates are for the earliest year in whch we find mention
of the persons:
Berry, John— 1812 Lewis, Andrew— 1801
Brown, John— 1794 Lewis, Charles A.— 1812
Crawford, William— 1793 Lockridge, William— 1797
Davis, Jesse — 1813 Mason, Moses — 1812
Dean, William— 1801 Massie, Henry— 1814
Dean, William M— 1812 McClintic, Alexander— 1812
Dinwiddie, William— 1796 Milhollen, Thomas— 1796
Erwin, John— 1794 Moore, Levi— 1796
Gatewood, Thomas — 1801 Robnson, James — 1792
Gay, Robert— 1812 Shrewsbury, John— 1797
Hamilton, James— 1801 Sitlington, Robert— 1797
Hicklin, James— 1801 Sitington, Willianv-1812
Hill, Richard— 1815 v Sitlington, George— 1814
Hite, Keeland— 1813 Slaven, Stewart— 1815
Holcomb, Timothy— 1795 Tallman, James— 1812
Johnson, Bartholemew— 1795 Walker, Joe— 1796
Jordan, John— 1814 Warwick, John— 1794
Jordan, Solon— 1813 Warwick, Andrew J.— 1814
Kinkead, Joseph— 1801 White, Valentine— 1796
Kinkead, Thomas— 1801
After the reduction of the county in 1823, and previous to the
war of 1861, we find the following sheriffs:
Robert Sitlington— 1823 Archer P. Strother— 1848
Alexander McClintic— 1828 Andrew H. Byrd— 1849
James Hamilton— -1834 Samuel Lewis — 1851
William McClintic— 1837 Andrew H. Byrd— 1857
John Sloan— 1838 Adam G. Cleek— 1858
Until 1852 the justices of the county courts of Virginia were ap-
pointed and served without pay. They now became elective and re-
138 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
ceived a per diem allowance. About this time the county was di-
vided into four districts, each of which was entitled to four justices.
For a while the districts were designated as First, Second, Third, and
Fourth. Later, they were given the names of Cedar Creek, Warm
Springs, Williamsville, and Millboro.
In 1860 the valuation of real and personal property was
$3,156,238. There were 16 churches: 6 Baptist, 4 Presbyterian, 4
Union, 1 Methodist, and 1 Episcopalian.
In 1794 Virginia was called upon for a quota of 4800 men to be
used in putting down the Whiskey Insurrection in the southwest of
Pennsylvania. The commander of the national troops was Governor
Henry Lee, the father of General Robert E. Lee. As "Light Horse
Harry," he had made a brilliant record in the Revolution. Some Bath
men served in this army, but we have not list of their names. The fol-
lowing letter by one of them was written to a friend at home :
Camp at Simpson's, the Center of Aligany 32 miles short o/
Beason Town 1 & 8 from the Big Crossings 2 , Sunday Morning,
Oct. 26, '94.
Wee are hear Lying on our ores waiting for Better weather.
It has been Verry wet Since Friday Evening Last and appears to Continue
this Evening. Wee would Reached Beasontown had the weather been
Feavorable. Wee will march to Pit 3 at all events & there Remain Some
time. There will be about 2000 Men Kept there this winter to be Com-
posed of Volenteers from the whole army when Collected on Imediate
Drafts from the home Militia if the Volenteers Cannot be Procured, there
will be Nothing to be Don but to Reduce them to Proper Subordination,
which will be Easily Effected as they are Almost frighted to Death, the
Great Breadford made his Escape Eight Days ago Doan the River and Left
Some fine farms, it is Supposed one of them will be head Quarters this
winter. Brackenridge, Gattes, Cook, & some others As yet Says they will
Stand their Tryal in hopes for Mercy, a Captain Higgens — Express from
that Country Came to Genl Morgan a Thursday Last who Informs there
Never was so affrighted a People, when they find the Army so near them.
Genl Morgans Division to which I Belong are the advanced part. My
Compny Drew Riffles, there is one Regiment of Riffle men in the Division
Commanded by Colo. Crisup from Maryland, wee are about 500 strong.
A Military Life is a fine one. Waron 4 Says if Ever he Volenteers it
'Vow Union town, Pennsylvania.
2 A ferry on the Youghiogheny.
4 Probably Abijah Warren.
SEVENTY YEARS OF BATH HISTORY 139
again the Devil May be his Captain, for my own Part I am as happy as the
Nature of my Situation will admit of — a fine apatite & Plenty to Eat and
Drink, wet Cold Ground to Ly on. wee Ly Down & get up Contented. I
Procured the Quarter Masters Appointment for Fliegan, which is a hand-
some one. he Lives in My family. So of Course when Joined with the
Stof wee shaP Not Want. So hears to You & the two Whites, Cochran, &
Oliver, & the rest of the Boys about the Springs. Just Merridian, the Publick
pays for all. Fliegan Joins the Lott. My Love to Dolly & the Childer. I
shall Soon see them when I Return.
In 1822 many Bath citizens signed a petition for the removal of
the state capital from Richmond. The reasons given were that Rich-
mond would be too much exposed in case of war; that its warm cli-
mate makes it uncomfortable for mountain legislators to attend sum-
mer sessions ; and that the luxurious habits of its people were distaste-
ful to the petitioners.
As already observed, there was a comparatively full population
in 1790 and a considerable degree of prosperity and comfort. The
further progress of this county, before the upheaval of 1861, was at
a steady and substantial pace, so far as agricultural interests were
concerned. With respect to highways and the summer resorts, the
advance was more marked. Geography has been kind to Bath. The
several openings among the mountain ridges between the Iron Gate
and the Sister Knobs are doorways to through lines of travel between
East and West. Even before 1800, what was then considered a
good road led over the Alleghany divide and down the Great Kana-
wha to Ohio and Kentucky. The Harrisonburg and Warm Springs
Turnpike, built some years later, was a still better road. It was
lined with taverns and was traversed by the stages that conveyed vis-
itors to and from the summer hotels. It was thronged with numerous
freight wagons and with droves of cattle and other domestic animals.
In 1857 the pike was partially superseded by the Virginia Central
Railroad, which in that year had extended its line to Jackson's River
station, a few miles west of Clifton Forge. War checked the ad-
vance of the iron path, but in 1867 work was resumed, and under
the name of the Chesapeake and Ohio, it has grown into a very im-
With respect to slavery, a few clauses in the will of Andrew
140 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Sitlington are of interest. One of them leaves several slaves to his
wife and concludes with this wish : "And though I give them entirely
into her disposal to do unto them as she pleases, yet I cannot help ex-
pressing confidence in her humanity and tenderness that she will grant
them their freedom in some reasonable time after her death." He
desired such emancipation as to slaves over the age of 25. Males
under 25 were to be "bound out to honest, industrious persons to be-
come industrious and moral, and taught to read and write, so as to un-
derstand Scripture and keep their accounts." Females were to be
bound until 21, and taught "to read, at least, and to habits of indus-
try and morality, so that they may be good and useful members of
society." But Sitlington did not deem it prudent or expedient to
free the male negroes under the age of 25. The freed negroes were
to contribute to the support of any of their number who might become
The interest in popular education appears in a petition by Pat-
rick Maloy and fifty-seven other persons, the names having been pro-
cured about 1842. We quote some extracts from this paper.
(There is) no legal provision for the proper location and construction
of schoolhouses, for supplying well-qualified teachers, or for testing the
quality' of such as profess to teach; no superintendent of schools, nor gen-
eral regulations for the proper management of them, or the proper selection
and supply of textbooks. The fund appropriated for the education of poor
children is not only deficient in amount, but often negligently and injudi-
ciously administered. Much of this precious fund has been wasted in pay-
ing for abortive scraps of tuition. We hold it to be manifestly just and
proper, that the people should all contribute according to their ability,, to the
great object of diffusing the blessings of education through all classes of
It was not until 1846 that Virginia adopted any plan for free
public tuition, and even this was not comprehensive.
An advanced stand against intoxicants is disclosed in a vigorous
petition, probably written by John H. Ruckman. It was presented
to the General Assembly, January 15, 1840, by William Lockridge.
We give below its opening and closing sentences.
Those laws by which the sale of intoxicating drinks are legalized and
licensed were originally dictated by a benevolent wish to restrict the sale and
use of such drinks. They were intended to keep the means of intoxication
away from the drunkard, but leaving them entirely open to sober men.
Were the system perfectly successful we should deem it highly objection-
SFVENTY YEARS OF BATH HISTORY 141
able, as tending to debase respectable citizens into drunkards. But it is a
matter of perfect notoriety that it imposes no practical restraints whatever
upon any person.
If the laws will continue to permit sinks of vice, poverty, and crime to
stand open night and day, the same laws must continue to provide poor-
houses, prisons, gallowses, and graves to receive the victims. Can it be
necessary to keep up this state of things forever? Does the public good
require that in these United States 50,000 men shall spend their whole time
in manufacturing and selling a deadly poison, both to body and soul, and
that these men shall destroy 25,000,000 bushels of grain yearly, while the
people are suffering for bread? And is it necessary that 30,000 of our
fellow citizens shall annually go down to the drunkard's grave, leaving their
wives widows and their children orphans? Does the public good require
such a sacrifice? Is there no remedy? Has law nothing to do with hu-
manity? There is a remedy. Repeal the liquor laws, and in their stead
provide suitable penal enactments against the further sale and distribution
of the poison.
A century after the first appearance of Selim the Algerine there
was another incident of a quite unusual character. A stranger ap-
peared in this county one summer, who never revealed his name and
went to much trouble to avoid meeting people. He would hide if a
person were coming in his direction and likely to encounter him.
He occupied a vacant mountain cabin near Bath Alum. An old col-
ored woman came once a week to keep the habitation in order.
When he needed provisions, he would place the order and the neces-
sary money on a stump, and then go off with his gun until the woman
came back with the supplies.
One day the negress found him in a delirious condition and called
a doctor, under whose ministration the man recovered. There was
a long talk with the mysterious patient, who was found to be a cul-
tured gentleman of pleasing personality. One day the caretaker
brought him a letter and photograph which pleased him greatly. In
taking leave of his physician, he told the latter he was going home and
that they would never see one another again. The stranger had mon-
ey and paid all his bills. Who or what he was, or where he came
from, were things that never became known in Bath. The conjec-
ture esteemed most plausible was that the eccentric behavior was due
to a love affair.
The letter with which we close this chapter was written from
Indiana. Captain James Bratton, the father, was living near Mill-
boro. The original letter is in the possession of W. A. Bratton.
142 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
"Montgomery County October th. 20. 1812.
Honoured father and mother 1 embrace this opportunity of informing
jou of our welfare. At present that we are well thanks be to the giver of
all mercies hopeing that these few lines will find al in the same state of
health. We have had a young daughter born April th eight the name is
Betsy Dunlap We are highly pleased with our moving to this county as yet
I have not purchased land as yet but I expect in few days to get place where
we shall settle upon As to going to the Wabash I have defered as the In-
dians appears to be very troublesome there yet we have had a very late
account from the frontiers and the killing the people on the frontiers every
Chance they get the mounted volunteers that went from this state against
the indians are now all Coming home the have cut all the corn burnt
there towns in all this work there never an indian appared against them the
footmen are to stay during the winter nothing more but remain your loving
son and daughter till death
"Robert and Anne Bratton"
"Remember us to William Crawford and the family likewise to John
Poter and his family Brother David and his family are well."
BATH IN THE WAR OF 1861
URING the war of 1861 this county adhered to the Con-
federate government. A large share of the able-bodied
men were absent in the Southern army, and the hotels
in Warm Springs valley were converted into military
hospitals. Bath did not itself come within the sphere of important
military operations. There were slight skirmishes at Williamsville
and Millboro, but no engagement of importance. Yet the Federal
cavalry several times raided through the valleys and thus brought the
people face to face with some of the aspects of actual warfare.
The men serving on the county court for the term 1860-64 may
well be termed the "war justices." Their names are as follows:
First District: Alexander H. McClintic (president), Anthony Mustoe,
William W. Shields, George Mayse.
Second District: Aaron G. McGuffin, Osborne Hamilton, Roger Hick-
Third District: Moses McClintic, William C. Burger, Stephen Wan-
less, John Carpenter.
Fourth District: Thomas Sitlington, John U. Dickenson, Addison Mc-
Clung, Robert P. Williams.
It is a very exceptional fact that Bath supplied from one of ts
households a general of brigade rank to each of the contending armies.
They were sons of William H. Terrell, an eminent lawyer who
filled the position of commonwealth's attorney in 1860-64. Brigadier-
General William R. Terrell, a graduate of West Point, took his
stand with the Union, and his artillery was very instrumental in sav-
ing the day for the Federals at Shiloh. He was killed in the battle
at Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, and was buried at West
Point. Brigadier-General James B. Terrell, a graduate of the Vir-
ginia Military Institute, went with the South, and was killed in the
battle of the Wilderness in 1864. He was serving as colonel at the
time, but his commission as brigadier-general had already been signed.
The Terrill brothers were descendants of the McCausland family,
now extinct in Bath.
144 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
To deal as directly as possible with the way in which this county
experienced the vicissitudes of the struggle, we present some data
taken in chronological order from the pages of the county records.
Jim. a slave of Mary C. Frazier, was acquitted, April 21st, of the charge
of feloniously conspiring to plot, rebel, and make insurrection. But as he
was of bad reputation, a bond of $150 was demanded from his owner.
The county court ordered, May 14th, that $1500 be appropriated out of
the forthcoming levy to arm and otherwise equip a troop of cavalry.
Charles R. McDannald was appointed its agent for this purpose. A patrol
of 16 men was appointed July 9th, according to an act of Assembly. The
poll tax voted was $4.25.
Martial law was proclaimed by the Confederate president, March 29th.
An order from General Heth requiring a provost marshal in Bath, Robert
B. Matheny was recommended for the position. Salt being scarce, John P.
McDannald was authorized, April 8th, to borrow money for the purchase
of 100 sacks, the fund so used to be repaid out of the next levy. At the same
time, and in pursuance of a military order, all free able-bodied negroes be-
tween the ages of 18 and 45 were ordered to report. Of these, 12 were re-
quired to work the road between Milboro and Warm Springs. There being
no election at the usual time, of sheriff and commissioner of the revenue, a
special election was ordered for November 27th. December 9th, 12 patrols
were ordered, three for each district
A smallpox hospital was ordered, January 13th. On the same day it was
decreed that $3500 be applied to the relief of destitute families, the justices
acting as distributors. Notes to this amount, in denominations of one dollar,
fifty cents, and twenty-five cents, were ordered to be printed and then
signed by the presiding justice By order of the Secretary of War, five free
negroes were drafted to chop wood on the Virginia Central Railroad.
There was a requisition on the county, February 13th, for 40 slaves
between the ages of 18 and 45, the purpose of the call being to employ
them in building fortifications around Richmond. The answer was that of
the 781 slaves in 1862, there should have been available 104; but that some
had been removed from the county by their owners, others had been sold
because of the nearness of the enemy, while from 14 to 16 had escaped, and
from 12 to 15 were physically unfit for service. As the draft was therefore
deemed much too heavy, the War Department reduced the requisition to 30,
a third of whom were to go to Richmond. Wiliam Shumate was detailed
to have charge of the party.
In March, John Cleek was appointed an agent to procure cotton and
BATH IN THE WAR OF 1861 145
yarn from the South. It was announced that goods thus purchased were
for use and not for speculation. A special election was ordered for May,
but none took place. A claim of $584 against the county was allowed,
December 8th. It was for flour to the amount of 14 barrels and 61 pounds.
On the same day the sheriff was ordered to make a list of all indigent sol-
diers honorably discharged, and also a list of the widows and minor chil-
dren of deceased soldiers.
In September, there was a call for 20 slaves between the ages of 18 and
55. The answer was returned that the number of such was still further
reduced, from 15 to 20 having lately been abducted by the Federals.
Bonds to the amount of $15,000 for the relief of destitute soldiers were
ordered, January 12th. Ten slaves were requisitioned, in February, but
only about 30 of the class asked for were reported as now in the county.
At the May election, Charles R. McDannald was chosen clerk, Adam G.
Cleek sheriff, and William McClintic surveyor. The poll tax for the 350
tithables was fixed at $10, and to pay the allowances for the destitute, a
levy of 2J^ per cent, was ordered on the assessment of $2,266,125. The
Federal inroads causing the production of foodstuffs to be less than the
needs of the population, it was asked that the head tax might be paid in
money. In December there was a requisition for five slaves beween the
ages of 17 and 50, the draft to be supplied by individuals individualy own-
ing a number equal to the call. It was replied that there were but two such
pel sons. One of these had lost seven by capture within 18 months. Some
negroes had been secreted, and others had been stolen away. There was a
request that six millers, five blacksmiths, two shoemakers, and one tanner
be exempted from detail service.
In October, Smith Darnell was allowed $13,743.10 of the depreciated cur-
rency for the relief of the destitute in the First District.
It was announced in January that a third of the slaves had been ab-
ducted. In April the county court ordered that any surplus of provisions
which might exist should be distributed at prices not to exceed the following
figures: Wheat, per bushel, $50; corn, $30; rye, $30; buckwheat, $30;
potatoes, $15; bacon, per pound, $11.
The last session of the court under the Confederate government was held
April 14th. The clerk was ordered to remove the records to a place of
The next session was held August 21st, the members being James L.
Bratton, John Carpenter, John Cleek, Sr., Smith Darnell, Osborne Ham-
ilton, Charles H. Hughart, Alexander H. McClung. and Addison McClung.
THE BATH SQUADRON
N MAY, 1861*, a company of the young men of Bath,
eager for the fray, responded promptly to the call of the
governor of Virginia The patriotic daughters of the
2J county soon raised the funds to purchase a beautiful silk
flag. This was presented on the Saturday preceeding the departure
of the company from Staunton on its way toward the northwest. The
speech of presentation was by Nicholas K. Trout, Mayor of Staun-
ton. The flag was received by Captain A. T. Richards, of the
company with these words: "We will cherish it as we will our
wives and sweethearts."
The Bath company was a cavalry command. It marched under
sealed orders to Philippi, W. Va., where it reported to Colonel Por-
terfield, commanding the Confederate forces there. It rendered good
service in picketing and scouting, during the interval up to the sur-
prise by the Federals under General Kelley. In this engagement, L.
P. Dangerfield of the company, lost a leg by a minie ball, he and a
member of another command being the first Virginia soldiers to be
wounded in the war. On the other hand, A. M. McClintic 2 wound-
ed General Kelley by a ball from his flintlock pistol.
Because of the hasty retreat from Philippi, the company was so
unfortunate as to lose its beautiful flag. It was in its case in the
company's wagon, and in the suddenness of the early morning attack
was overlooked. The retreat continued to Beverly, where General
Garnett took command. With other troops the Bath Cavalry were
advanced to Laurel Hill, northwest of Beverly. While here being
drilled in the duties of the soldier, they continued to do good work in
picketing the roads leading toward the Federal position. Early in
July General McCIellan advanced from Buckhannon by the Staunton
and Parkersburg pike, and overpowered after a gallant resistance the
iXhis account is condensed from articles written for the Bath News by
Lieutenant A. C. L. Gatewood. His letters relating to events after the bat-
tle of Gettysburg were not available to us.
2 John W. Sheffer, according to another account.
THE BATH SQUADRON 147
Confederates on Rich Mountain. Pegram and his men were cap-
tured but were released on parole to return to their homes and there
remain until regularly exchanged. Among the prisoners were the
Bath Greys under command of Captain S. A. Bonner. Pegram's
men reported kind treatment by McClellan and his army. After their
exchange the Greys were transferred to the cavalry service and were
now commanded by Captain W. D. Ervin. Their assignment was to
the 18th Virginia Cavalry of Imboden's Brigade.
General Garnett began his retreat the evening of July 9th, intend-
ing to make a stand in the mountain passes near Huntersville. But
learning that the road to Beverly was in the hands of the Federals,
his only way to escape was northeastward through Tucker County.
At Corrick's Ford — now Parsons — he gave battle and was killed.
McClellan, an old friend and classmate at West Point, had his body
embalmed and sent to his family. From the Cheat River to Peters-
burg, Garnett's men had nothing to eat except fresh beef killed on the
road and eaten without salt or bread. At Petersburg there were sup-
plies for the famished soldiers. After a rest the march was continued
to Monterey, where within a few weeks General R. E. Lee took
command and advanced into Pocahontas County. The Bath Cavalry
were assigned to his army, being put into a battalion commanded by
his son, Major W. H. F. Lee.
The summer was unusually wet and there was much sickness from
measles and typhoid fever. The country from Valley Mountain,
where General Lee made his headquarters, down to Huntersville is
dotted with the neglected graves of soldiers, especially the Georgia
troops. The Bath Cavalry were at Huntersville till late in the fall,
when from the great difficulty of provisioning the army, the command
was odered into winter quarters at Bath Alum, and afterward at
Rockbridge Alum. 1
Early in May it was known that a foraging party from Milroy's
army was in the neighborhood of Williamsville. With a view of
bagging the detachment, the Bath Cavalry set out at 2 P. M., and at
because of the recruits who came in at these places, the Bath Squadron
was divided into two companies, F and G, commanded, respectively, by
Captains A. G. McChesney and F. A. Dangerfield.
148 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
night were near the foraging party. At daylight they took position
on the Burnsville road a little way out from Williamsville. It was
by this road that the foragers were to return to McDowell. A picket
on an opposite hill within observation of the foragers was to fire his
gun as a signal for the attack. The train was captured, only a few
shots being fired. A Federal refusing to surrender was wounded in
the shoulder by J. W. Warwick, Jr. The booty amounted to 15
prisoners, 25 wagons, and 105 horses. Because of high water in the
Cowpasture, and the danger of being intercepted if the return were
by the Burnsville road, the wagons were set on fire. The wounded Fed-
eral recovered. He was a cousin to Mrs. Felix Hull, of McDowell.
Just after the battle of McDowell, which took place May 8th, the
two companies, a fine looking and well mounted body of troops, were
ordered to report at Staunton. Company G was put on detached
service, to scout down the South Branch toward Franklin. Company
F was sent to Richmond, and thence on picket duty toward Freder-
icksburg. Early in July, Company G was sent to Gordonsville to
picket the Rapid Anna near that place. July 4, a scouting party
from Company F, under command of Lieutenant Henry McClintic,
was surprised in Caroline County. Six men escaped, but four — E.
B. Williams, M. P. Surber, W. H. Tinsley, and C. Cochran — were
captured. After this occurrence, there was some skirmishing with
Kilpatrick's men. July 25th, Company F was put into the 17th Bat-
talion, Virginia Cavalry. In a skirmish early in August, Company G
lost three men. The captain and A. M. McClintic were wounded
and captured and William Thompson was killed. The company,
now under Lieutenant Joseph Mayse, was ordered to McDowell on
detached service. Shortly afterward the 17th Battalion was detailed
to convoy to Richmond the 600 prisoners taken in the battle of Cedar
Run. It then rejoined Stonewall Jackson's army, and accompanied
it on the flanking movement which brough on the second battle of
Manassas. Its position was on Jackson's extreme left. This force
reached Middleburg August 28th, where an unusual hospitality was
shown to the men, the chronicler being careful to mention that never
before had he seen so many pretty young ladies in a small town. But
the sound of cannon toward the southeast made it necessary to resume
the march, and that night the cavalry were deployed as videttes in
front of the infantry. Next day the 17th supported Chew's Battery.
THE BATH SQUADRON 149
After the Federal lines were broken on the 30th, the cavalry were sent
While General Lee was moving across the Potomac into Maryland,
the 17th Batallion and the 12th Virginia Cavalry were ordered to
make a demonstration on Martinsburg to keep the Federals there
from reenforcing Harper's Ferry. This brought on an engagement
at Darkesville, Sept. 6th. The loss of Company E, which was arm-
ed with double-barelled shotguns, was four killed and six wounded.
Early in November, General W. E. Jones took command of Ashby's
old brigade of which the 17th was now a part, and was left in charge
of the lower Shenandoah Valley. The 17th was stationed seven
miles north of Winchester in order to scout the roads toward Romney.
Company G joined the battalion here, and during the remainder of
the war the two Bath companies were never separated. In December,
Jones made a reconnoissance toward Moorefield. About the middle
of February companies I and K were added to the 17th Battalion,
which became known as the 11th Virginia Cavalry. Lieutenant A.
J. Ware became captain of Company F, and Henry McClintic the
first lieutenant. Between Edinburg and Woodstock the 11th en-
countered the 13th Pennslyvania Cavalry, February 26th, and cap-
tured over 200 men.
In April, Colonel L. L. Lomax, a graduate of West Point, took
command of the regiment, which on the 21st of the same month, as
a part of the brigade under General Jones, began a raid into West
Virginia. The whole command was in fine order, the men having
fresh mounts. Starting from near Harrisonburg, and moving through
Brock's Gap to Moorefield, the South Branch was found so high that
it was necessary to go 10 miles up the river to find a ford at all
practicable. The crossing was with much difficulty and danger, one
member of the 6th Regiment being drowned. At Greenland Gap a
Federal force of 150 men was captured, though after considerable
delay. At daylight on the 26th, "Red House" was reached. This was
a point on the line of Garnett's retreat, nearly two years earlier. The
command passed through Preston County, greatly harrassed by bush-
whackers. At Evansville the soldiers were permitted to help them-
selves to the goods of the merchants. One fellow, not knowing what
he wanted, tied about a dozen pairs of hoop skirts to his saddle. But
General Jones made him get off his horse, put on a pair, and then
150 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
prominade up and down the street in the presence of the other troops,
at the same time giving him a verbal reprimand for burdening his
horse with such baggage. The 12th Regiment gained the name of
"Calico 12th," from its taking back to Dixie more of that brand of
cloth than any other command.
Jones advanced to Morgantown, some of his command pushing
onward nearly to Uniontown. He next seized Fairmont, where he
captured without any fight the 105th New York Infantry, and some
Home Guards, a total of about 800 prisoners. They were released
on parole, the Home Guards with the promise that they would be-
have better in the future. At this town the fine railroad bridge was
destroyed. This act was a severe blow to the Federal cause. A pon-
toon bridge had to be used for the next six months, and a permanent
one was not constructed until after the war. Near Bridgeport there
was a hot skirmish, in which Company G lost two men. Upon reach-
ing the town some damage was done to the railroad and rolling stock.
It was here at Bridgeport that Imboden was to meet Jones, after
which the united force was to capture Clarksburg and then wreck the
railroad bridges and tunnels in the direction of Parkeisburg. But the
other command not appearing, Jones moved to Philippi, and learning
that Imboden was at Buckhannon, he joined him there, and the united
forces advanced to Weston, where they rested a few days. Imboden
then went to Sutton, while Jones struck the railroad again, this time
at Pennsboro, tearing up the track from that point to Cairo. He then
moved to Burning Springs on the little Kanawha, where a vast
quantity of oil was set on fire, turning the river into a flaming lake
for 12 miles, and killing the timber within a hundred yards of either
bank. The next objective was Sutton, where the 11th was detached
from the bribade, rejoining it at Warm Springs. After this the old
camp near Harrisonburg was reoccupied. The raid had lasted 30
days and was very fatiguing, but resulted in the infliction of much
damage and the capture of much livestock.
After a short rest, Jones was ordered to join General J. E. B.
Stuart at Culpeper, where in June there was a review of the whole-
cavalry corps. The spectacle was very imposing. Next day the
great cavalry battle of Brandy Station took place, in which the 11th
captured a battery and routed a large force of cavalry. For this
THE BATH SQUADRON 151
achievement, Colonel Lomax became a brigadier general. The next
fight was at Upperville, where both the Bath companies sustained some
loss. In the advance of Lee's army into Pennsylvania, the 11th was
on the extreme right, and at Fairfield repulsed the 2d U. U. Cavalry
(regulars), this being the regiment of their commander-in-chief be-
fore the war.
At the close of this year, General Rosser became the brigade
commander. The campaigning of 1864 took place in the valleys of
the Shenandoah and the South Branch.
ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS
EARLY all of the soldiers from Bath in the Confeder-
ate army served in the 11th Cavalry and the 52d In-
fantry of the Virginia Line. The services of the cav-
il airy command are related in a special chapter. The
52d Infantry served first in the brigade of General Edward Johnson,
and took part in the battle of McDowell. Then and afterward it
was under Stonewall Jackson in the Valley of Virginia and East of
the Blue Ridge.
The following roster is a consolidated list, gathered from the rolls
collected some years since by the veterans of the county. It is not in-
tended to include men who were not residents of Bath between 1860
and 1865, nor who were not honorably discharged from the Confed-
erate service. The list does not assume to be complete or perfect. It
has had the best revision we could command ,but the War of 1861
now lies more than 50 years in the past and hence it is all but impos-
sible to attain absolute accuracy.*
So far as our information will permit, each name is followed by
1. The company (indicated by letter) and the regiment (bv
number) in which the soldier served, the regiment being understood
to be infantry unless otherwise mentioned.
2. The soldier's rank. Where no rank is mentioned it is to be
understood that he was a private.
3. Facts as to being killed, wounded, or taken prisoner, and
where and when.
4. If still living, his postoffice address in August, 1917. Where
no state name follows the name of the state, an address in Virginia
is to be understood.
Names of military prisons are sometmes mentioned in the case
of prisoners of war.
Names followed by a star indicate the soldiers who went out on
service May 13, 1861, these being the first ones to go from Bath.
ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS 153
The following abbreviations are used in the list:
Capt — captain wd — wounded in action
Lt — lieutenant m wd — mortally wounded
Sergt — sergeant cp — taken prisoner
Corp — corporal d — died of sickness during the war
Qmr — quartermaster D — died since the war
k — killed in action ukn — whereabouts unknown
Acord, George — F — 11 Cav — k Wilderness, '64
Adams, William— K— 52
Ailstock, Simon — Grays
Ailstock, C. F.— F— 11 Cav
Ailstock, Jordan — G — 11 Cav — cp — d, prison
Ailstock, Zerubabel*— G — 11 Cav— 3d Corp.— D
Anderson, William H.* — G — 11 Cav — 4-th Corp. — cp — ukn
Anderson, Samuel — F — 11 Cav —4th Corp — D
Archie, Robert— G— 11 Cav— D
Archie, Stephen P.— K— 52-4D
Armstrong. Dr. J. M. — G — 11 Cav — Ass't Surgeon — Ardmore, Okla.
Ayers, Stephen P. — K — 52
Baldwin, Peter— ?— 52— D
Peaty, George— 'Grays — D
Bennett, Grays — unkn
Bess, Andrew J. — unkn
Bethel, James S— K— 52
Bogan, S. W. B.— ?— 18 Cav
Bolton, John — Grays
Bonner, S. A.— F— 11 Cav— Lt— k Wilderness '64
Bonner, Andrew G.* — Bath Cav
Boone, Walter— K— 52 — 4th Sergt
Booth, F — 11 Cav — West Virginia
Bratton, Andrew S— F— 11 Cav— 2d Sergt— D
Bratton, William A.* — F — 11 Cav — k — Blackwater '64
Bratton, John F.— F— 11 Cav— Bolar
Bratton, James — F — 11 Cav — D
Bratton, J. M.— 'G— 11 Cav — Millboro
Bright, Thomas — Grays
Bright, John — Grays — D
Bright, David — Grays — D
Bryan, Dr. C. P.
'We are indebted to Mr. George W. Wallace for a revision of the
154 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Burger, David— F— 11 Cav— D
Burger, Samuel C— G— 11 Cav^D
Burger, William C— K — 52 — 1st Lt — D
Burns, M. C— K— 52
Burns, Aaron W — K— 52
Burns, Lewis F. — K — 52 — D
Burns, Hughart M — ?— 18 Cav— D
Burns, Pressley — G — =11 Cav — D
Burns, John — G — 11 Cav — Tex.
Burns, Michael N. — K — 52 — 1st Corp — m wd '62
Carpenter, William R. N.— K— 52— d '62
Carpenter, J. W. — ? — 18 Cav — Burnsville
Carter, Thomas — Grays — D
Cauley, Lee— G— 11 Cav— McClung
Cauley, Brown — ? — 11 Cav — McClung
Chandler, Samuel — F — 11 Cav — West Virginia
Chandler, David— ?— 11 Cav
Chandler, Stround — Grays
Clark, James M.— K— 52
Cleek, Eli*— G— 11 Cav— D
Cleek, James*— G— 11 Cav — D
Cleek, George W— F— 11— Cav— 2d Corp.— cp— Darkesville '62— Bolar
Cleek, D. G— F— 11 Cav— wd, Wilderness— '64 — D
Cleek, Adam G.*— K— 52— D
Cleek, Jacob— K— '52— D
Cosby, Benjamin — G — 11 Cav — D
Cosby, John — G — 11 Cav — d, home
Cosby, David— G— 11 Cav — D
Coyner, Robert — Grays — D
Coyner, William — Clifton Forge
Criser, William H.*— G— 11 Cav — D
Criser, T. J.— G— 11 Cav.— D, 1898
Criser, J. Lewis*— F— 11 Cav — D
Criser, John S.*— »F — 11 Cav — Warm Springs
Criser, Robert J.*— F— 11 Cav — D
Curry, Alexander — K — 52
Curry, Martin V.— K— 52— D
Curry, Samuel M.— K— 52— D
Curry, Peter S.— K— 52— 3d Corp — D
Curry, Andrew* — G — 11 Cav — D
Curtis, Joseph — Grays
F>aggy, John H.— K— 52— D
Danellor, William— G— 11 Cav —2d Corp— k Blackwater '64
Danellor, F. G.* — <unkn
ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS 155
Dangerfield, F. A.*— G— 11 Cav— Capt— w and cp, '62— D
Dangerfield, Leroy P.* — wd, Philippi '61 — D
Dean, William*— F— 11 Cav
Deeds, John L. — D
Dickenson, John S. — F — 11 Cav — 1st Corp — D
Donovan, Stephen — G — 11 Cav
Douglas, B. R. — F — 11 Cav — Sitlington
Douglas, Calvin — Grays — k Fisher's Hill '64
Dunlap, Joseph M. — >F — 11 Cav — 1st Sergt
Erwin, William D. — Grays
Erwin, Dr. James R. — G — 11 Cav — k Wilderness '64
Foster, David C— K— 52
Fry, James — G — 11 Cav
Fry, William— F— 11 Cav — D
Garrison, John W.— K— 52
Gatewood, A. C. L.— F— 11 Cav —2d Lt — wd Darkesville '62
Gay, David* — ukn
Gay, Henry — ukn
George, Samuel F. — ukn
Gibson, Lewis — F — 11 Cav
Gibson, Stephen — Grays — D
Gillespie, Joseph G.* — F — 11 Cav — m wd '64
Gillespie, John W.— K— 52
Gillett, James — K — 52 — Warm Springs
Gillett, Andrew W.—K— 52— Flood
Gillett, John W.— K— 52— D
Gillett, William R.—K— 52— Color Sergt— D
Gillett, Daniel— Grays— Tex.
Ginger, James* — G — 11 Cav — D
Ginger, George — F — 11 Cav — k Orange '62
Ginger, Frank — Grays — D
Ginger, Samuel — Grays — Warm Springs
Cladwell, John— G— 11 Cav — D
Glendy, R. G.*— G— 11 Cav —4th Sergt— D
Glendy, Thomas— G— 11 Cav— D
Glendy, John— G — 11 Cav — D
Glendy, Benjamin — G — 11 Cav
Gordon, James W. — ukn
Green, B. W. — Grays — ukn
Green, William— G — 11 Cav — k Upperville '63
Gross, Henry — F — 11 Cav k Wilderness '64
Gross, William A.— >D
Groves, John, Jr. — K — 52
Gwin, J. S.— F— 11 Cav
Gwin, James K. P.— F— 11 Cav— D
Gwin, William— F— 11 Cav— d. diphtheria
156 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Hamilton, Charles* — F — '11 Cav — k Edinburg '62
Hamilton, Joseph E.* — F — 11 Cav — D
Hamilton, John A. — F — 11 Cal — Rockbridge Co.
Hamilton, Charles B. — K — 52
Hamilton, C. A.— K— 52
Harouff, James — Grays — D
Harris, William — 'Grays
Haynes, — Grays
Heffner, Zebulon — K — 52
Hickman, L.— F— 11 Cav— D
Hicks, William E.— D
Hite, Allen— 'D
Hively, Thomas — G — 11 Cav — d, home
Hively, George W.— K— 52— D
Hodge, James, W. D.— F— 11 Cav — D
Hodge, Joseph — Grays — D
Hodge, Reuben — 'D
Hodge, William — Deerfield
Hoover, John A. — K — 52 — D
Hoover, Jacob A.— K— 52— D
Hoover, William A.— K— 52— 3d. Sergt— D
Hoover, Samuel— K— 52— 2d. Corp — D
Hoover, David— G— 11 Cav — D
Hopkins, W. H— G — 11 Cav— 1st. Sergt— wd Upperville, '63— D
Hughart, Charles A.— K— 52— D
Hughart, Robert — Grays — D
Husk, Thomas R— C— 11 Cav— ukn
Huzer, William J.— K— 52— ukn
Jack, David — Grays — D
Jack, William, Z. B.— K— 52— D
Jack, John H.— K— 52— D
Jackson, George — ukn
Jackson, Peyton — G — 11 Cav — Richmond
Johnson, — G — 11 Cav
Jordan, James — F — 11 Cav
Jordan, John— F— 11 Cav— D
Jordan, William— F— 11 Cav — D
Jordan, William D. — Grays
Jordan, William C. S. — Grays — D
Karnes, William H.— G— 11 Cav — wd. Brandy, '63— D
Keatz, John — ukn.
Keizer, Marshall D.— K— 52
Keizer, H. G.— K— 52
Kenny, James — Grays — D
Keyser, James — F — 11 Cav. — D
Keyser, D. W. C— F— 11 Cav — D
ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS 157
Keyser, Hezekiah* — F — 11 Cav
Kincaid, Thomas M.— K— 52— D
Kincaid, Floyd — D
Kincaid, James N. — D
Kincaid, Joseph B.*— G— 11 Cav — D
Kirpatrick, William, R — K— 52
Kirkpatrick, C. T.— Bolar
Lair, John — D
Landes, Joseph — F — 11 Cav
Lange, Henry — G — 11 Cav — k Edinburg, '62
Lange, William — unk
Lange, John — G — 11 Cav
Law, Aaron — F — 11 Cav — k Wilderness, '64
Law, James — G — 11 Cav — D
Law Benjamin H. — G — 11 Cav — McClung
Law, Stephen — G — 11 Cav — D
Lawrence, William — Grays
Lewisi Jasper C* — G — 11 Cav — 2d Sergt — Green Valley
Lindsay, John A.— K— 52— 2d Lt
Lindsay, R. D.— ?— 18 Cav— McClung
Lindsay, Paul — D
Linkswiler, Joseph — K — 52 — D
Linkswiler, James — K — 52 — D
Liptrap, David — K — 52
Loan, Samuel — K — 52 — D
Lockridge, Cooper* — G — 11 Cav — D
Lockridge, David — F — 11 Cav — 2d Sergt — wd — d, home
Lockridge, L.— Churchville— F— 11 Cav— D
Lockridge, John W.— G— 11 Cav— D
Lockridge, Andrew J. — ? — 31 — D
Lockridge, Lewis C. — Grays — D
Lockridge, William — D
Lowman, James D. — G — 11 Cav — D
Lyle, William A.— K— 52— D
Lyle, John — Grays — D
Lyle, Samuel — Grays
Lyle, Benjamin F. — ? — 18 Cav
Marshall, J. M.— D
Marshall, William — Grays
Martin, W. A.— F— 11 Cav
Matheny, Oliver T. — Gray9 — D
Mayse, Allen— G — 11 Cav— D
Mayse, Thomas — G — 11 Cav — D
158 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Mayse, Joseph*— G — 11 Cav — 1st Lt — D
Mayse, Charles F. — G — 11 Cav — Fort Lewis
Mayse, Dr. George — G — 11 Cav
Mayse, Anderson — F — 11 Cav — D
McAllister, John W. — McClung
McChesney, A. G. — F — 11 Cav— »Capt — resigned, '63 — D
McClintic, W. S.— G— 11 Cav— D
McClintic, Adam A.*— G — 11 Cav— k, Cedar Creek, '64-
McClintic, Robert S. — G — 11 Cav — k, Patterson's Creek
McClintic, A. B— G— 11 Cav— D
McClintic, John— F— 11 Cav— D
McClintic, James — K — 52 — D
McClintic, Henry— F— 11 Cav— 1st Lt— D
McClintic, A. M.— G — 11 Cav— 2d Lt— wd and cp, '62— D
McClintic, G. T.— G— 11 Cav— 3d Sergt— Tex.
McClung, W. T.—K— 52— McClung
McClung, John — Grays — D
McCray, William — Grays — Hot Springs
McDannald, William C.*— F— 11 Cav— D
McDannald, George W— F— 11 Cav
McDannald, J. P.— F— 11 Cav— Qmr Sergt— D
McDannald, S. Crockett* — G — 11 Cav — d, disease, '62
McDannald, W. K.— G— 11 Cav— D
McElwee, John— F— 11 Cav— d, '64
McEIwee, Francis — F — 11 Cav
McElwee, William D. — Grays (?)
McElwee, "Bud"— F— 11 Cav
McElwee, Divis — F — 11 Cav
McElwee, Bernard F— F— 11 Cav
McGuffin, James — F — 11 Cav — 2d Lt — resigned, '62— <D
McMath, Samuel— G — 11 Cav— D
McMullen, John— K— 52
Miller, John M— K— 52
Moffett, W. B.— F— 11 Cav
Moore, W. H— F— 11 Cav
Moore, — Grays
Mustoe, M— F— 11 Cav— 3d Corp— D
Mustoe, George — F — 11 Cav — O
Neff, Allen— ?— 18 Cav— D
Oliver, C. H.— G— 11 Cav
Oliver, Charles — Grays
Oliver, Joseph— G— 11 Cav— k (?)
O'Mara, James— F— 11 Cav— D
Painter, Alexander — Grays
ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS
Painter, James— Grays— D
Painturff, J. H.— F— 11 Cav
Palmer, George— Grays
Payne, Charles— G — 11 Cav
Payne, George — D
Payne, Lewis— F— 11 Cav^th Corp— cp, Darkesville, '62
Payne, W. G.— F— 11 Cav— 2d Corp— Charlottesville
Payne, William H.*— F— 11 Cav— Alderson, W. Va.
Payne, J. E.— F— 11 Cav— 'Warm Springs
Phillips, Wiliam*— G— 11 Cav
Phillips, Thomas*— G— 11 Cav
Porter, Andrew S.— F— 11 Cav— wd— D
Price, Henry— F— 11 Cav— D
Pritt, James — K — 52
Propst, James — D
Putnam, Albert — D
Putnam, Samuel — Grays — D
Ratcliff, Warwick C— K— 52— D
Ratcliff, James P.— K— >52— D
Ratcliff, William— Grays— D
Ratcliff, — Grays— D
Ray, J. Shaw— D
Ray, Thomas T— Grays— D
Rider, Jacob M.— K-»52— D
Ritchie, William*— G— 11 Cav— D
Ritchie, Joseph — G — 11 Cav
Rithway, William — D
Rogers, Stephen — G — 11 Cav
Rogers, J. H.
Rosser, John — F — 11 Cav — k, Wilderness, '64
Rourke, Charles K. S.— K— 52— D
Rowe, John A. — D
Rucker, — Grays — D
Shelton, Thomas A.— K— 52— D
Shultz, John— F— 11 Cav— D
Shumate, John R. — G — 11 Cav
Shumate, William H.*— D
Silver, Joseph— F— 11 Cav— Color Sergt— k, Cedar Creek, '64
Simpson, George — G — 11 Cav — D
Simpson, John F. — G — 11 Cav — D
Simpson, William — G — 11 Cav — Millboro Springs
Simpson, Michael— K — 52
Sittlington, Alexander H— F— 11 Cav— D
Sively, George L.— F— 11 Cav— D
Smith, John— K— 52
Smith, James M.— K— 52— d, '62
160 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Smith, James— 'G— 11 Cav— D
Smith, Charles— G— 11 Cav— D
Smith, Stewart — G — 11 Cav — wd — Millboro
Smith, James— F— 11 Cav— d, '63
Snead, Anthony— K— '52— 4th Corp— D
Snead, William — F — 11 Cav
Snead, Robert V.— F— 11 Cav— D
Snead, Samuel — K — 52 — D
Snead, John — K — 52 — D
Sprouse, William — Grays — D
Sprouse, Walker— K— 52— D
Stewart, James H.— F— 11 Cav— D, 1894
Stinespring, James — Grays — 'D
Stinespring, Jonathan — D
Surber, M. P.— F— 11 Cav— cp, '62
Swartz, John — G — 11 Cav
Swartz, Samuel R. — F — 11 Cav — cp, Darkesville, '62 — D
Swartz, Lewis R.— >F— 11 Cav— cp, Darkesville, '62— D
Swearingen, James N. — K — 52 — D
Swearingen, William — Grays — D
Taylor, Almond S.*— G— 11 Cav— D
Thomas, Charles — F — 11 Cav — Augusta Co.
Thomas, Charles A.* — G — 11 Cav — Hot Springs
Thomas, David — F — 11 Cav
Thomas, George — F — 11 Cav — D
Thomas, Jacob — G — 11 Cav — k, Wilderness, '64
Thomas, John J. — K — 52
Thomas, John M. — Grays
Thomas, Samuel B.* — F — 11 Cav — D
Thompson, Benjamin — G — 11 Cav — k, Wilderness, '64
Thompson, Charles* — G — 11 Cav — D
Thompson, George — G — 11 Cav — D
Thompson, Henry — F — 11 Cav
Thompson, Mason — G — 11 Cav — d, home
Thompson, William* — G — 11 Cav — 1st Corp — k, Orange, '62
Tinsley, James — F — 11 Cav
Tinsley, William H.— F— 11 Cav— cp, '62
True, Thomas — G — 11 Cav — D
Tuning, Benjamin — Grays
Tyree, Larkin B.— K— 52
Tyree, W. W.
Vance, Charles — Grays — D
Venable, William G— k Cedar Run '62
Vess, George W.— K— 52— k Cedar Run '62
Vess, Jacob — Grays — D
Wallace, Andrew — G — 11 Ca^ — mt Wd — Patterson's Creek
ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS 161
Wallace, Christopher R.*— F— 11 Cav— D
Wallace, John S. — Sunrise
Wallace, M. W.— 11 Cav— 3d Corp — cp, Darkesville— d, Camp Chase '62
Wallace, William H. — Lewiston, Wash.
Walton, Benjamin F. — K — 52 — Capt — mstwd Port Republic '62
Walton, John A.— K— 52— k, Port Republic, '62
Walton, Thomas— F— 11 Cav— K
Ware, A. J— F— 11 Cav— Capt— D— 1898
Warwick, John A.*— G— 11 Cav— 3d Lt— D, 1900
Warwick, J. W., Jr.— G — 11 Cav— Hot Springs
Wilfong, Jacob— F— 11 Cav— Hot Springs
Wilkenson, James— 'F — 11 Cav — D
Wilkenson, Robert — G — 11 Cav — Warm Springs
Williams, Anthony M.* — G — 11 Cav
Williams, Charles — Grays — D
Williams, E. B.— F— 11 Cav— 1st Corp— cp '62
Williams, Erasmus F.*— >G — 11 Cav— Hot Springs
Williams, Harry— G— 11 Cav
Williams, James* — G — 11 Cav
Williams, Lewis H.*— G— 11 Cav
Williams, Thomas — K — 52
Williams, T. J.— F— 11 Cav— 'Healing Springs
Wilson, William— K— 52
Windom, John — F — 11 Cav
Windom, Charles W.— K— 52
Wine, Robert E.
Withrow, Jacob E.— 'G— 11 Cav
Witt, J. J.
Wood, P. A.— F— 11 Cav— d, prison
Wood, Frank — Grays — d, prison
Woodzell, William — G — 11 Cav — Warm Springs
Woodzell, George— K— 52
Woodzell, Benjamin — Grays — D
Wright, John — Grays
N THE northeast of Bath is the elevated, fertile valley
lying between Walker's and Shenandoah mountains.
The summers are cool, the scenery is attractive, the graz-
ing is superior. The position is on the natural route
used by the Harrisonburg and Warm Springs Turnpike. The tim-
bered mountains, containing deposits of iron ore, give the locality a
prospective industrial importance. Last, but not least, this belt of up-
land, known as Cloverdale, or the Wilderness, is associated with some
interesting events in American history.
John Mathews, an immigrant from Ulster, settled about 1742
in Rockbridge County a little above Balcony Falls. Of his ten chil-
dren Sampson and George acquired fame and fortune. When only
about twenty-one years old, Sampson was a reader in the "chapel of
care" near his father's home. His services were discontinued in 1759
owing to the partial depopulation of the neighborhood as a result of
the Indian war. In 1762, or perhaps earlier, these brothers went
into the mercantile business at Staunton. Their store, which was at
the northeast corner of Beverly and Augusta streets, seems to have
been on the lot which they purchased in 1760 for $100. Their busi-
ness prospered and they opened stores at other points. With Jacob
Lockhart as a partner they conducted one at Lexngton. They also
acquired considerable land. In 1765 they bought a large tract near
Staunton between the famous hills known as Betsy Bell and Mary
Gray. In the same year they purchased 1200 acres on Elk Run, this
being the starting-point of their Cloverdale estate. The price was
61 cents an acre. Five years later they patented 2080 acres adjacent.
They also owned several small tracts on the Cowpasture.
Like most Virginians of the time previous to the war of 1861,
Sampson and George Mathews preferred the country to the town.
They at length made their home on the Cloverdale purchase, George
styling his residence "Market Hill." He lived here until 1785.
Sampson removed to Augusta in 1791. A little before the outbreak
of the Revolution in 1775 the brothers built a store at Cloverdale.
Their success in business demonstrated their executive ability. Be-
ing also of great energy and influence, they were drawn irresistibly
into public and military life. Sampson was nominated for a seat on
the county court in 1765, when he could not have been more than
twenty-eight years old. He was by this time the proprietor of the most
fashionable of the hostelries at Staunton. George was likewise a
member of the court and in 1770 was sheriff of Augusta. In 1776
he represented the county in the House of Burgesses.
In the Point Pleasant campaign, Sampson Mathews had charge
of the commissary department of the army under Lewis. As a colo-
nel of militia he saw active service in the war for American Inde-
pendence. In July, 1781, he was quelling the tory organization of Wil-
liam Ward in Pendleton. A little later he was leading his regiment
in the Yorktown campaign. In the preceding year he was a member
of the State Senate. He favored the formation of Bath and took an
active part in its organization. He died in Augusta in 1807 at the
age pf about seventy. His first wife, to whom he was married in
1759, was Mary, a sister to his partner, Jacob Lockhart. Other
sisters were the wives of Matthew Arbuckle and William Ward of
Greenbrier. The last wife was Mary, a daughter of Jacob Warwick.
His sons identified themselves with Greenbrier County. It is curious
to note that in spite of the services of Colonel Mathews he was so lax
in the matter of intoxicants as to expose himself to the action of the
grand jury by selling them contrary to the regulations of law.
The following is one of his official letters during the Revolution:
Cloverdale 26th Sep 1781
I Reed your Excellencys favor (of the 14th Instant) on the 24th I
have ordered 200 beef Cattle & 30 Waggons Loaded with stores & Spirits
to be at Colo Esoms ordinary on Saturday the 6th nex month & So proceed
with all Expedition To the army & Expect at Least 150 or 160 head of
Cattle & 20 or 25 Waggons will at that Time make their appearance
I also will forward in about 5 Days after 80 or 100 cattle & 5 or 6
waggons, which will be the whole that Posibly can be furnished from ye
County. I have the honor to be with Much Esteem & Respect
obt humbl Servt
It was the younger brother, George, who became the more prom-
164 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
inent man. When only twenty-two years old he led a band against
the Indians and was victor in a sharp skirmish, the foe losing nine
of their number, against three on his own side. In the Point Pleasant
campaign he commanded a company under Colonel Charles Lewis.
Not one of his 60 men was under six feet in height, and many stood
six feet two inches. It was these husky fellows who helped to decide
the day at Point Pleasant. His company was one of the three that
turned the flank of Cornstalk's line and caused the Indians to think
the Fincastle regiment had come to the rescue.
Soon after the Revolution broke out, George Mathews was made
lieutenant colonel of the Ninth Virginia Regment of the Continental
Line. For a while he was stationed east of the Chesapeake. He
then joined the army under Washington and in February, 1777, was
promoted to the rank of colonel. At Germantown, his regiment, 400
strong, was a part of the left wing under General Greene. This
able leader had turned the British right, and the Americans were on
the point of gaining a complete victory, when a thick fog settled, over
the field. In the confusion that followed, the "tall Virginians" of
Mathews were outflanked, but did not surrender until reduced to the
equivalent of a single company. Colonel Mathews received several
wounds in this battle and was not exchanged until December, 1781.
His health being somewhat impaired by his long captivity, he re-
tired to Market Hill to provide for the needs of his large family.
General Greene, who put a high estimate on his ability, importuned
him to join the army in the South. Mathews at first demurred. He
wrote Greene that he had been in easy circumstances when the war be-
gan, but was now "with care & rigid economy endavoring to pre-
sarve from rail want a wife and eight helpless children." But he
yielded to Greene's wishes and took command of the Third Virginia
Regiment. When the British evacuated Charleston in 1782, he had
the satisfaction of turning the tables on his late captors by riding into
the city by the side of his commander-in-chief.
The visit to the South led to his removal to Georgia in 1785. As
a representative from his adopted state he sat in the First Congress,
1789-91. He was governor of Georgia in 1787-8 and again in 1793-
6. He was also a member of its first constitutional convention. Dur-
ing hs second term as governor, Mathews signed very reluctantly and
under pressure the charter of the Yazoo company to lands in what
is now Alabama and Mississippi. But the concern was fraudulent
and shares of its stock were distributed among members of the leg-
islature to influence their votes. After a hot fight the graft was ex-
posed and came to grief. The governor was not designedly a party
to what went into history as the "Yazoo land steal," and did not line
his own pockets through its corruption. But his popularity was tem-
porarily eclipsed. John Adams nominated him for the governorship
of Mississippi Territory, but withdrew his name owing to the re-
luctance of the senate. Mathews was so angry that he rode horse-
back to Philadelphia, strode into the president's room wearing his old
sword and his three-cocked hat, and gave the first magistrate of the
land a a "tongue lashing." But as he was a Federalist, like Adams
himself, he was soon pacified.
At the outset of the war of 1812, Mathews was a brigadier gen-
eral of militia and was stationed on the frontier of Florida, then under
the ownership of Spain. He was also appointed one of two commis-
sioners to receive Florida, if offered to the United States, or to seize
it if any third power attempted to do so. Mathews was an expan-
sionist and believed in taking over the peninsula. He abetted the in-
surgents in Florida, occupied the fort on Amelia Island, put out the
Spanish officials, and raised the American flag. Spain remonstrated
at what was technically a breach of international law, and as the ad-
ministration did not choose to incur the risk of fighting two enemies
at the same time, Mathews was removed. He was on his way to
Washington to talk to Madison as he had talked to Adams, but was
taken ill at Savannah and died there in 1812 at the age of 73.
General Mathews was a short, heavily built man, with a florid
face and light red hair. He walked very erect with his head thrown
back. He was of eccentric manner and very positive convictions, not
conceding that any man was his superior except Washington himself.
He was married in 1762 to Ann Paul. Two of his sons were given
land in Ohio and two daughters had lands in Kentucky.
According to some authorities, Mathews County, Virginia, was
named for George Mathews.
In the year of his return to Augusta, Sampson Mathews mort-
gaged the Cloverdale tract of 2080 acres to Gabriel Jones, a once
famous lawyer who lived near Port Republic. Shortly afterward a
166 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
portion was conveyed to Samuel Blackburn and the remainder to
General Blackburn, who married Anne, a daughter of George
Mathews, in 1785, was born about 1758 and was admitted to the
bar in 1796. He was a graduate of Liberty Hall Academy — now
Washington and Lee University — and a soldier of the Revolution.
He went first to Kentucky and then to Georgia, to practice law, but
the clamor against his father-in-law caused him to leave the latter
state in disgust. He returned to Virginia and built the old brick
mansion on what is now called the "Wilderness" property. In 1824
he had 1000 acres under cultivation. Blackburn was an orator and
a criminal lawyer of repute. While sitting in the General Assembly
he secured the passage of an anti-duelling law. In politics he was a
Federalist. He died in 1835, freeing his 40 slaves by will and giving
$500 to the Staunton Bible Society. There were no children and the
estate fell into neglect.
John Kephart had been a lessee of Cloverdale in 1789. The prop-
erty at length passed into the hands of Louis C. Barley, of Alexan-
dria, who has acquired mountain lands adjacent until his holdings
aggregate 47,000 acres.
Judge Barley is a great friend to industrial development and has
put himself to much effort in the way of developing the natural re-
sources of Bath. It is through his exertions that a railroad spur has
been built up Mill Creek to afford an outlet for the millions of feet of
merchantable lumber on the mountain sides. There is a reasonable
hope that this beginning will lead to a permanent railroad. This
would prove of much moment in the future development of this and
THE CALFPASTURE VALLEY
HOUGH not a portion of Bath, the main valley of the
Calfpasture is closely associated with this county. At the
time of early settlement it was undoubtedly open ground,
and was shut off from the country around Staunton by
timbered mountains. Access to the Cowpasture was rendered easy by
Panther Gap and by the great depression at the south end of Shenan-
doah Mountain. Some of the pioneers, or members of their house-
holds, speedily began to move in this direction, thus establishing ties
of relationship and interest with the people of Bath.
The valley of the Little Calfpasture is more distinctly a part of
the great Valley of Virginia, and is not considered in the present
chapter. On the other hand, Mill Creek, though coursing mainly
in Bath, is a tributary of the Great Calfpasture. Locally, the two
Calfpasture streams are known as Great River and Little River.
Actual settlement on Great River can scarcely have begun much
earlier than 1743. The author of Annals of Augusta claims that
this valley was settled quite as early as the district around Staunton,
yet offers no evidence in proof. The records of Augusta, especially
the muster rolls of 1742, do not support the statement.
The first constables were Robert Graham and William Hodge,
appointed February 28, 1745. William Jameson was made a cap-
tain the same year to succeed Alexander Dunlap, appointed in Au-
gust, 1743. In 1744 Henry Gay was made a lieutenant.
Acting under an order of council, John Lewis and James Patton
surveyed in 1744 a tract nearly fifteen miles long, but nowhere more
than about one and one-eighth miles broad. Their map shows it
cross-sectioned into twenty-three lots, the first lying where Goshen
now stands and the last rather to the north of Deerfield. With a
single exception, every lot had already been taken by some settler.
The following tabular statement shows consecutively the number of
the lot, the name of the settler, the acreage, the purchase price, when
stated in the deed, and the early transfers of title. In those in-
stances where the deed was issued to some other individual than the
168 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
original settler, the name is given in brackets. The name of a wife is
also thus given.
1. Alexander Dunlap (John Dunlap)— 625— $68.69— 295 acres sold to
Robert Dunlap, 1761, for $333.33.
2. William Jameson— 170— $20.87.
3. Thomas Gilham— 168— $18.S6--sold, 1752, by Thomas (Margaret)
Gilham to James Lockridge for same price — resold, 1767, by John Dicken-
son to William Thompson for $200.
4. Robert Crockett — 370 — $41.15 — sold, 1760, by pioneer's sons: — James
(Martha) and Robert, Jr. (Janet), both of Mecklenburg County, N. C, to
William Thompson for $200—295 acres sold by Thompson, 1767, for $166.67.
5. David Davis — 290 — $29— *old, 1749, by Lewis and Patton to John
6. Thomas Weems— 525— $31.10— sold, 1768, by Thomas (Eleanor)
Weems to William Given for $723.33.
7. Henry Gay — 694 — $33.39 — 100 acres sold, 1769, to James Frasier
8. Francis Donally— 266— $30.02.
9. Robert Gay— 519— '$57.89.
10. Samuel Hodge — 449— $47.97.
11. John Miller— 316— $70.08— sold by John (Ann) Miller to John Ram-
12. Loftus Pullin— 252 (240?)— $26.92— sold to James Shaw, 1760, for
$30— sold by Shaw to John Ramsay, 1768, for $150.
13. Robert Bratton— 834— $96.67 — +00 acres sold to James Bratton, 1771,
14. James Lockridge — 280 — ? — sold by James (Isabella) Lockridge to
Andrew Lockridge, 1764, for $66.67.
15. John Graham — 696 — $79.58 — 150 acres sold to James Graham (son),
1763, for $16.67.
16. Robert Gwin — 544 — ? — sold by William (Agnes) Gwin to Robert
Lockridge, 1766, for $575.
17. John Preston— 1054— $31.15— 520 acres sold by William (Susanna)
Preston to Mary Preston, 1762, for $333.33. The same sold by Mary Pres-
ton to Robert Lockridge, 1763, for $366.67.
18. William Warrick— 1060— $118.67— sold, 1745, to John Kincaid.
19. James Carlile— 600— $65.39— 250 sold, 1753, to John Carlile, and
sold by him, 1762, to Thomas Hughart for $166.67—200 acres sold by John
(Mary) Carlile to Thomas Adams, 1796, for $391.67.
20. Jacob Clements— 457— $51.67— 202 acres sold, 1751. by Jacob (Mary)
Clements to John Campbell for $66.67, and sold by John (Ann) Campbell,
1768, to James Carlile for $250.
21. John Campbell— 308— $34.17— 208 acres sold by Samuel Campbell to
William Lockridge, 1769, for $713.33.
22. James Carter— 300— $33.38— sold to Robert Gay, 1746.
23. John Wilson— 600— $66.
THE CALFPASTURE VALLEY 169
Not all the original claimants were actual settlers on the survey,
but lived on the Beverly or Borden grants and took lands here for
speculation or for their sons. This seems to be the case with Crock-
ett, Davis, Donally, Miller, and Preston. Miller is named as a res-
ident of Albemarle.
The first deeds were issued mainly in April and July, 1745, and in
Orange County. Carlile, Graham, and Weems did not take deeds
Mention of the Calfpasture families in general is given in a later
chapter. Thomas Adams came from New Kent County and was a
local magnate. He was one of the exceedingly few men of his time
to own a "chariot." By his will he freed a slave, "as there is no man
to whom I consider myself under greater obligations than to my slave,
James Carter was a millwright, and his mill is named in early
road orders. He was in the Carolinas in 1748, but must have return-
ed. He died in 1768.
The Calfpasture families not only took a very prominent part in
settling the valleys of Bath and Highland, and afterward those of
Greenbrier and Pocahontas, but they helped to people the uplands
of the Carolinas. They were also prompt in taking a share in the
settling of Kentucky. In 1779, Captain James Gay and Alexander
Dunlap, Jr., headed a party which settled in the blue-grass region of
that state and founded Pisgah church, said to be the first Presbyterian
organization in Kentucky. The school which grew up by the side of
the church developed into Transylvania University.
Gay, who was but twenty-one years old when he turned west-
ward, had served under Andrew Lockridge. His second wife was
Elizabeth, a daughter of John Dunlap. He was himself a son of
James Gay, who married Jean Warwick. Alexander Dunlap, Jr.,
married his sister, Agnes. Major Samuel Stevenson, whose mother
was a daughter of John Warwick, was a third member of the emi-
grating party, and he also wedded a Gay. Thus the Gays, Dunlaps,
and Stevensons, as well as the Hamiltons, Kinkeads, Warwicks, and
other Calfpasture families, have gained both affluence and prominence
in the Bluegrass State and other commonwealths of the Great West.
A Warwick gave his name in a changed spelling to Warrick County,
Indiana. Lieutenant-Governor Walkup, of California, was a de-
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
scendant of Captain John Walkup, who came to the Calfpasture
So great was this exodus that in time it nearly extinguished the
Calfpasture surnames of the Revolutionary period.
Because of the homogeneity between the early populations of Bath
and the Calfpasture, there were many persons who thought the latter
region should be included in the new county. Geographic considera-
tions appeared to link it with Bath rather than Augusta. But there
was a difference of opinion on this matter among the inhabitants of
the Calfpasture itself, and the stronger voice prevailed.
Rocky Spring church was built on an acre deeded in 1773 by
Andrew Kincaid, Jr., to the "trustees of a congregation of dissent-
ers." These trustees were James Bratton, Lancelot Graham, Andrew-
Hamilton, Thomas Hughart, William Kincaid, and Andrew Lock-
It seems to have been on the Calfpasture that Charles Knight
was to have $60 for teaching one year, every half Saturday or every
other Saturday to be free time. In case of an Indian alarm Knight
was to have the privilege of being lodged in the neighborhood.
The names below are appended to a petition of May 27, 1779.
The signers are not in favor of being included in a new county lying
mainly to the west of Shenandoah Mountain :
Black, John (1)
Black, John (2)
Gwin, Robert (1)
Gwin, Robert (2)
Kinkead, Thomas (1)
Kinkead, Thomas (2)
THE CALFPASTURE VALLEY
Additional Names on an Undated Petition.
Armstrong, W. M.
THE BATH OF TODAY
HERE are really two Bath Counties in Virginia. They
occupy the same geographic area, but are very unlike
There is first the old Bath, given to agriculture and
stockraising, and peopled by the descendants of the pioneers and the
later comers. Since the war of 1861 its advance has been at a leisure-
ly pace, such innovations as modern farm machinery, the silo, the
telephone, and the automobile being primarily due to influences from
without. Toward the other Bath, its attitude is very much that of
a spectator. In some measure the old Bath is directly or indirectly
supported by the other, but between them there is in the nature of the
case but little community of feeling.
There is second the tourist Bath, created by the mineral springs,
the mountain climate, and the shortness of time in which it may be
reached from the great centers of American population. This Bath is
largely though not wholly localized in Warm Springs valley. The
characteristic human element in the tourist Bath is the throng of vis-
itors, most numerous in spring and fall. To these must be added the
families who have built mansions or cottages, so as to make this valley
an adjunct home. And as a great share of the inflow is from the city
of New York, distant only a night's journey by the express train, it
is hardly an exaggeration to call Hot Springs a detached suburb of
the great American metropolis. The people who frequent the hos-
telries of Warm Springs valley are mainly of the wealthy and exclu-
sive classes. It is thus that between them and the native element,
save in exceptional instances, there can be little in common. Each
Bath lives to itself.
Dependent on and called into being by the tourist Bath is a third
population which is characteristically a labor class. This element is
quite considerable in number and quite varied in composition. It is
largely derived from without the county, and in a great degree it is
concentrated in Warm Springs valley. This class has had much to
do with the steady increase of the total population. To the north is
THE BATH OF TODAY 173
Highland with an almost exclusive agricultural interest and a slowly
declining population. To the south is Alleghany, where a diversified
industrial interest heavily dominates, and because of which the aggre-
gate population tends to increase.
The visitor who makes a comprehensive tour of Bath is struck by
the seeming smallness of the number of people on the farms, and by
the large areas of hill and mountain which remain very nearly as
much a wilderness as they were when the first pathfinders arrived.
The river-bottom lands have been continuously occupied since the
dawn of settlement. Not a few of the holdings are owned by progres-
sive farmers and are valuable properties. But the natural increase in
population has ever been much more inclined to migrate to newer re-
gions than to reduce to tillage the much inferior uplands. No large
inroad has been made into these, and on some roads one may travel
several miles without passing a house. The imperfect railroad fa-
cilities are somewhat adverse to intensive farming, which has the ef-
fect of arresting the decline in population of strictly rural communities.
Yet there is an increased demand for the minor products of the farm,
and a beginnig has been made in commercial orcharding.
Turning to Warm Springs valley, whose limestone soils point to
grazing farms, one is impressed by the extent to which this exception-
al basin has been turned into a recreation ground. The present con-
siderable population is dependent on the soil only in a slight degree.
The main line of the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad touches just
one limited stretch of good agricultural land; that which is immediate-
ly tributary to Millboro Station, where quite a village has grown up.
After coursing through it two miles, the steel track plunges into a
tunnel, beyond which it follows the exceedingly rough and almost un-
peopled valley of Padd's Creek. The branch line from Covington
merely traverses a few miles of the indifferent Cedar Creek valley and
reaches only to the upper end of Hot Springs Gap.
A complete railroad development of the Virginias would include
a through line from the Potomac to the upper James by way of the
South Branch and Jackson's River valleys. At all events, an electric
line through this long district could be of great service to it, and the
necessary motive power could be secured by harnessing the rapidly
The metallic resources of this county are not inconsiderable, but
174 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
must await the hour when the ores that are more readily reduced
have diminished greatly in amount.
The future of Bath is to be read in its past and present. It will
remain to a somewhat increasing extent a recreation field for the tour-
ist element. Agriculture will slowly become intensive and its output
more valuable. Relatively, the rural population will hold its own,
and is not likely to be supplanted in any marked degree by a tide of
new immigration. The highways will very noticeably improve, both
with respect to roadbed and bridges. The present degree of incon-
venience in reaching the outside towns and markets will diminish.
In a word, we may confidently expect that the county will develop
into a still better place in which to live.
Since 1860, the increase in population is shown in these census
Considered by districts, there are these contrasts between 1890 and
Cedar Creek 867 2472
Millboro 1542 1418
Warm Springs 1058 1360
Williamsville 1120 1258
In 1910, the whites numbered 5362 and the negroes 1176. Of
the whites, 115 were of foreign birth, and 134 were of foreign or
mixed parentage. Of the foreign born, 28 were from Italy, 20 from
Greece, 17 from Germany, 15 from Sweden, 14 from Ireland, and
12 from England. Only 12 of the 115 had taken the trouble to make
themselves fully naturalized ctizens. Of the negroes 276 were class-
ed as mulattoes. The white males were 2821 and the white females
2541. The males of voting age were 1818, although but 527 of the
number cast ballots for the three leading presidential candidates of
1912. Of these 1818, there were 111 illiterate whites and 83 il-
literate negroes. The persons between the ages of 6 and 14 were
THE BATH OF TODAY 175
1332, of whom 842 were in school. The dwellings numbered 1195
and the families 1225. The average of persons to the family was
5.3, against 4.9 for the state at large.
The 563 farms of the county had a valuation per acre of $6.05.
They covered 41,323 acres of improved land, which is one-ninth of
the entire surface. Of the farms 13.2 per cent, were operated by
tenants. There were 1475 horses, 80 mules, 5980 cattle, 3711 hogs,
and 16608 sheep and goats. The value of all farm property, including
improvements and domestic animals, was $2,958,186. The acreage
and yield of the leading farm crops present this exhibit:
Corn 4,405 acres 112,895 bushels
Wheat 2,567 acres 36,816 bushels
Oats 459 acres 6,912 bushels
Potatoes 198 acres 18,345 bushels
Hay 8,027 acres 8,645 tons
LLEGHANY was carved out of Bath, Botetourt, and
Monroe, Bath contributing the most important portion.
The Act of Assembly creating the county was passed
January 5, 1822. A portion of Monroe was annexed in
1843, and a very small portion of Bath in 1847. On the other hand
a part of Alleghany was annexed to Craig in 1856.
Nearly all the preceding chapters of this book deal very much in
matters which concern the Alleghany area as well as the Bath. Also,
what has been said of the general characteristics of the mountains,
streams, soils, climate, plants, and animals of Bath applies nearly as
well to Alleghany. The climate of the valleys is a little warmer be-
cause the altitudes are less.
A striking difference in the physical geography lies in the circum-
stance that in this locality every mountain ridge east of the Alleghany
Front opens to give passage to the James, just as the corresponding
ridges 200 miles northward open to give passage to the Potomac.
In each instance nature has indicated a route for an important line
bf railway between the Atlantic seaboard and the Great West. As a
consequence of this continuous cleft in the ridges of Alleghany, Jack-
son's and Cowpasture rivers, and Dunlap and Potts creeks are con-
verging streams, and each is followed by a railroad line. And since
the mountains of this county are stored with mineral wealth, the trans-
portation and industrial interests very much outweigh the agricul-
The counties of Pocahontas and Alleghany were created during
the same session of the legislature. It is said that the intention was
to call the western county Alleghany and the eastern Pocahontas, but
that the heedlessness of the engrossing clerk caused the names to be
transposed. The first should have had the name Alleghany, since it
lies in the midst of what are in this latitude the loftiest heights of
the Appalachian system.
ALLEGHANY COUNTY 177
Alleghany has a length of 40 miles, a breadth of 26, and an area
of 462 square miles. The census figures by decades are these:
By districts the population in 1910 was as follows:
Boiling Spring 2794
Clifton Forge (city) 5748
By the last Federal census Alleghany had 574 farms, of which one-
sixth were operated by tenants. The valuation per acre was $7.43.
There were 32,699 acres of improved land, covering about one-ninth
of the county. The value of all farm property, inclusive of improve
ments and domestic animals, was $2,092,552. There were 1267
horses, 68 mules, 4563 cattle, 2487 hogs, and 5558 sheep and goats.
The leading crops were as follows with respect to acreage and yield:
Alleghany has three times as many people as Bath, yet its total
farm valuation is 3 per cent. less. The leading farm crops rank about
the same, but Alleghany stands much lower in its number of farm
animals. It outclasses the older county in such minor crops as po-
tatoes and cabbages, and in orchard and small fruits. The explana-
tion of the above facts is quite plain. Outside of the limited bottom
lands, neither county is well enough suited to general farming. The
uplands are too rough and stony. But in grazing and fruit culture,
and in some other specialized lines, these counties can hold their own
against many others. The future of agriculture in this mountain
178 AXNALS OF BATH COUNTY
region lies not in the time-honored field tillage, which is adapted on-
ly to level or nearly level lands, but in those special products which are
indicated by soil, climate, and contour, and by the nearness to large
markets. Mountain counties are constrained to give much attention
to general field crops so long as they are remote from market. But
as soon as this remoteness is removed and they are brought into com-
petition with prime agricultural districts, general tillage is forced into
the background, no matter how ample the marketing facilities may be.
The highways of Alleghany are in better order than those of
Bath, and a considerable mileage is macadamized.
As early as 1800 there were several furnaces and forges with a
capacity of one to three tons a day. They used charcoal and water-
driven triphammers. Stoves, pots, skillets, and pipe were manufac-
tured before the war of 1861.
The mountains of this county contain immense deposits of iron
ore. There are now six large furnaces, but it is useless to expect that
iron mining will assume very great dimensions, so long as there are
large beds of loose ore in the Lake Superior region that can be scooped
up with a steam shovel.
The other mineral resources are of much importance. They in-
clude very large deposits of limestone, in addition to cement rock,
marl, magnesia, brick, clay, and slate.
Among the scenic features and natural curiosities is the cascade
where Falling Spring Run, itself the outlet of a mammoth spring,
passes through Little Mountain by a watergap. Toward the lower
end of the gap the waters plunge 70 feet over a precipice of marl and
enter the deep lower valley leading to Jackson's River. One is now
almost compelled to speak of the fall in the past tense. The waters
have been turned aside in order to give better excess to the immense
cliff of marl which the stream has built up from the leachings of the
limestone strata in the upper valley. The manufacturing plant is
located at the railroad station of Barber on Jackson's River. From
the standpoint of the picturesque, it is to be regretted that the cas-
cade has been done away with, at least for a time.
A waterfall of far greater volume occurs in Jackson's River, where
that stream passes through White Mountain between Covington and
Clifton Forge. It was described by Jefferson. A little below Clif-
ton Forge the same river passes through the Iron Gate, a short, sharp-
ALLEGHANY COUNTY 179
sided gorge that has much the same form as the notch which is cut
into a tree in the process of felling. A railroad track follows one side
of the defile and a wagon road the other. Midway between Coving-
ton and Hot Springs is the Natural Well. The opening is only about
three feet in diameter, but not far below the surface the well widens
very greatly, forming a considerable cavern.
The James River and Kanawha Canal was projected to Coving-
ton, but never built above Buchanan. A convention was held at
Covington, October 19, 1846, to discuss the improvement of the
James and the Great Kanawha. Delegates came from the county it-
self, and from Bath, Botetourt, Greenbrier, Kanawha, Mercer, Po-
cahontas, Roanoke, and Rockbridge. The meeting was in favor of
bringing the canal to Covington and then securing a railroad. If
this were denied it was claimed that the region would be almost de-
populated by emigration to the West. It was shown that most of
the counties represented were virtually without a market, owing to
the prohibitive cost of transportation. Coal, wheat, and fruit could
not be sent abroad, and the attention of the farmers had to be centered
on stock growing. With the canal at Covington, it was asserted that
there would be a probable increase yearly of 15,000 tons of traffic in
farm produce and 8,000 tons of merchandise. The cost per ton in
moving freight could thus be reduced from $5 to $1.50.
In 1857 the rails were laid to Jackson's River. Ten years later,
construction was resumed, and by the end of 1872 there was a through
line to the Ohio. The influence on the later history of Alleghany has
been very marked.
Covington was designated as a town in 1833 and incorporated in
1873. In 1840 it contained about 50 houses. In 1867 it was still
an inland village looking much like those county seats that still lie
remote from the railroad. Even in 1890 the population was only
704. Since then Covington has steadily grown into a little city
that was credited with 4234 people in 1910, and is larger today. Its
industrial interests are very important. Far in the lead is the ex-
tensive plant of the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company, opened
in 1900. Others are an extract plant — the only one of its kind in the
United States — an iron furnace, a tannery, machine shops, brick
works, an ice factory, and two large flouring mills. The pulp and
paper works are the second largest in the country. Most of the
180 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
growth of Covington having taken place within the last twenty
years, the town has a quite modern appearance. In fact, the size of
the place is not in proportion to its industrial and commercial im-
Twelve miles down Jackson's River is Clifton Forge, an incor-
porated city and politically independent of Alleghany County. It is
situated among very bold river-hills, and unlike what is true of Cov-
ington, there is a very inconsiderable amount of arable land in the
near vicinity. Clifton Forge is the metropolis of the county, having
a population in 1910 of 5748. Originally the site of an iron furnace,
Clifton Forge is now almost exclusively a railroad town ,and is a di-
vision point in the Chesapeake and Ohio system. What there is of
river-bottom is covered by the railway yard with its extensive sidings.
It is here that the James River division leaves the main line and runs
with a constant down grade to Richmond, 231 miles distant. This
was at first an independent road, and was built as the Richmond and
Alleghany. The easy down grade is why this line is used mainly for
freight, all express trains using the main line.
The minor towns of the county, such as Lowmoor, Iron Gate,
and Longdale, are exclusively industrial, and are mainly devoted to
the smelting of iron. The population of Iron Gate by the last census
The first meeting of the county court was held at Covington,
March 18, 1822. William Herbert was the first surveyor and sher-
iff, Oliver Callaghan the first county clerk, Thorns Crutchheld the
first commonwealth's attorney, and William S. Holloway the first
commissioner of the revenue.
The number of men liable to poll tax was 534. The first levy
was $1361.70, out of which there was an appropriation of $1068 for
the first county buildings.
The following is a list of the justices previous to the time when
they became elective instead of appointive. The names with a star
are those who were present on the opening day of the first court. The
names with a date are those whose commissions were subsequent to
ALLEGHANY COUNTY 181
Allen, John— 1831 Keyser, Joseph D*
Aritt, Michael* Kincaid, Robert
Aritt, John King, Charles— 1839
Bishop, Jacob — 1846 Knox, Rev. Elisha
Boswell, John L. Pitzer, John L. — 1846
Callaghan, John* Mann, Moses H.
Callaghan, Charles Mann, Lewis T— 1846
Carpenter, Samuel— 1838 Morton, William F— 1846
Crow, John Persinger, John
Davis, Jesse* Persinger, Peter
Harry, John — 1831 Persinger, Lee — 1839
Harnsbarger, Sebas Sancy, Sampson
Haynes, William H. Smith, Henry — 1831
Holloway, John* Steele, Isaac
Holloway, William G. Warren, James — 1839
Of the original board, Massie and Keyser were empowered by
the legislature to administer the oath of office to the other members.
The justices elected in 1852 were as follows:
First District: Peter Helminstoller, William Herbert, John C. Taylor,
Second District: Jacob Bishop, Samuel Brown, Jr., Lewis F. Mann,
Third District: John A. Black, James Harnsbarger, John J. Paxton,
Fourth District: Samuel Carpenter, Charles King, Madison Hook, Wil-
liam F. Morton.
The recommendations by the first court for officers of the militia
were these: Colonel, John Crow; Lieutenant-Colonel, John Per-
singer; Major, William H. Haynes; Captains, Moses H. Mann,
Anthony Brennemer, George Arritt; Lieutenants, Jacob Fudge,
Further recommendations for the First Battalion, 128th Regi-
ment, were as follows: Captain, John Callaghan; Lieutenant, Cor-
nelius Vanstavern ; Ensigns, David Johnson, William Mann, Joseph
Pitzer. For the Second Battalion, they were Robert Griffith as cap-
tain; William G. Holloway and Barton Shawver as lieutenants, and
George Pitzer and Alexander Johnston as ensigns.
The first tavern license was granted to Fleming Keyser.
The town of Covington, as orignally laid out, comprised 120 lots,
each a quarter acre in size.
182 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
The first board of school commissioners — for 1843 — were Joseph
Damron, Andrew Damron, Charles King, John McD. Mann, Alex-
ander Rayhill, Sampson Sawyers, Henry Smith, Isaac Stull, James
In 1860 there were several naturalizations, especially of Irish.
There were hundreds of that nationality in the county during the con-
struction of the Virginia Central Railroad.
We now pass to the leading documentary features of the War of
1861, as given in the county order book.
The grand jury for the March term was thus constituted: William F.
Morton (foreman), John H. Stone, Jordan Helminstoller. Asbury Matheny,
Samuel Boyer, Peter Boyer, Dennis Callaghan, William Scott. Joel Kindell,
Elias Hook, George Carson, Michael Karnes, Peter Dressier.
The entire county court was present at what may be termed the first
war session held April 27th. The members were Andrew Fudge, G. Mc-
Donald, George Stull, Lee Persinger, Madison Hook, Thomas T. Shumaker,
Charlton Shirkey, Beale V. Keyser, John I. Haynes, and Davis Williamson.
At this session it was announced that two volunteer companies were organ-
ized and on duty in a tented field, and that other companies would soon be
For the equipment and support of these volunteer companies, there was
an appropriation of $6000, raised by a loan. The board to adjust and set-
tle all claims arising out of this fund were C. Bias, James Burk, William
F. Clark, Thomas J. Daggs, Colonel Charles Dressier, William G. Hollo-
way, Madison Hook, Edwin Jordan, John Mallow, James M. Montague,
Lee Persinger, John L. Pitzer, William M. Scott.
The "war sheriff" was John J. Stack.
The poll tax was $3.50 per tithable, and there was a levy of two per
cent, on official salaries.
Tn March Andrew Damron was authorized in case of need to remove the
public records to a place of greater safety.
The levy was $6375.53.
William C. Clark was directed in August to buy 2500 bushels of salt in
A great scarcity of wagons was reported.
In November, William P. Rucker was arraigned under a charge of
treason for acting as provost marshal! under the Wheeling government,
for compelling citizens to take an oath to uphold the Federal government
fur burning the railroad bridge over the Cowpasture, for appropriating
horses and wagons, ofr carrying off slaves, and for mortally stabbing Mi-
chael Soice in April, 1861.
ALLEGHANY COUNTY 183
In January, William C. Clark was employed to buy 800 bales of cot-
ton yarn, 1000 yards of osnaburgs, and 3000 yards of brown domestic. The
actual purchases were 225 bales of cotton and 800 yards of cotton cloth.
Out of 595 slaves the county was required to furnish 27 between the
ages of 18 and 45 to work in the Confederate service.
In August there was appointed a committee of safety,, consisting of
Thompson McAllister, Peter Byers, William F. Clark, Joseph Irvin, Charl-
ton Shirkey, and William Damron.
It was ordered that C. F. Johnson be paid $25 for removing the county
Colonel Samuel Carpenter was made salt agent.
The court states that early in the war ten per cent, of the population
had volunteered for the Confederate service; that 200 families of soldiers
were now in need of support; that there had been two invasions by Aver-
ill's cavalry; that many slaves had absconded, and that if the quota of
forty slaves asked by the War Department were insisted upon, desertions
from the army would follow.
W. F. Clark was authorized to borrow $10,000 to buy 2000 bushels of
corn for destitute soldier families.
It was announced that the Federals under Averill, Duffie, and Crook in
their advance, and Hunter in his retreat, had taken everything they could
lay their hands on; that there had been unprecedented drouth; and that
it was impossible to supply the people and the soldiers unless the Con-
federate government should release the payment of tax in kind and permit
payment in money.
In September wheat was worth $8.11.
The tax on real and personal property was \Yz per cent.
W. F. Clark was an impressing agent.
There was a good deal of felony.
At the special term held April 24th, a resolution was passed, stating
that the surrender of Lee had greatly demoralized the citizens, and that both
soldiers and citizens were taking government property by force. Captain
John Carpenter, of Carpenter's Battery, was ordered to take possession of all
government property now in private hands, and turn it over to the state.
At the session of May 5th, it was represented that there was not enough
grain on hand to support the soldier families till harvest. Twelve days
later, the grain distributors were ordered to receive no more Confederate
money in payment of grain, but only specie or its equivalent.
The county court did not meet again until August 21st.
184 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Alleghany had only five soldiers in the Mexican War, but their
names are not at our command. In 1843 there were only thirteen
The real and personal property valuation in 1860 was $3,156,238.
The churches were fifteen — nine Methodist, four Presbyterian, and
We close this chapter with three legends. The first claims that
some peaceable Indians lived in White Rock Gap near Lowmoor, and
frequented the distillery of Michael Karnes; and that by appointment
the nearby farmers met at the distillery, looked up the Indians, and ex-
Another states that Katherine Vanstavern taught the children of
the four families once living on the site of Clifton Forge. An ad-
mirer was Harry Gorman, a graduate of William and Mary College.
Two Indians came one day to the door of the schoolroom. Gorman
fired upon them from the woods, killing one and causing the others
to run. Very naturally, this led to the lovers becoming engaged.
But before they were married, Katherine was seized by five Indians
and taken bound in a canoe to the camp of the red men lower down
Jackson's River. Gorman saw the performance while hunting, col-
lected a party, came upon the Indians while they were asleep, and af-
ter several of the latter were killed, the maiden was rescued to be-
come in due season the wfe of the rescuer. But Cornelius, the first
of the Vanstaverns in Bath, was born in Delaware in 1756, and his
daughter Katharine married Joseph Carson in 1822, a date much too
recent to fit into any Indian raid into the valley of Jackson's River.
Jacob Persinger is thought to have been born at the mouth of
Potts Creek. When about twelve years old, he was taken with thirty
other captives to the Shawnee towns and adopted by a squaw who
had two boys. Boards were tied to their backs to make them straight,
and every morning all three had to take a plunge bath, after which
they ran about nude until their skins were dry. As a consequence of
the treaty of 1764, the boy was brought in that year to Jackson's
River. No one claiming him he went back to his foster mother, who
was greatly pleased. The chief insisted that it was not right for him
to stay with the red men, and three braves returned him to the set-
tlement, but he escaped from them. This time the squaw concealed
him, but he was at length seen by the chief, who said he must go back
ALLEGHANY COUNTY 185
to the whites. The boy thought the Indians were no longer willing
for him to be among them, and he made no further attempt to return.
This time he was claimed by a German woman who had lost a son,
although he did not have a scar from the bite of a rattlesnake, such
as was on the foot of her own child. The returned captive was six
feet four inches tall, while she was but four feet six inches. But
she adopted him and he lived in her home a while. He went to
school, but every day carried his rifle, knife, and tomahawk to the
schoolroom. After some time, he built a cabin on Stony Mountain
and lived the life of a hunter. He married Mary Kimberlin, who,
on finding he had no bed except the floor and two bearskins, insisted
that he adopt a more civilized way, and she carried her point. He
became a good famer and reared his large family well. He was a
scout in the Dunmore War and a soldier in the Revolution. This
story is probably correct in the main, although an older Jacob Per-
singer was the pioneer of that name on Potts Creek.
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH
jl^N THIS book the spelling of proper names ordinarily
follows the style now in common use. It is very true
I that present usage is not always the same as that of the
colonial time. It is also true that these ancient spellings
are a part of history. But in those days, each person who wielded a
pen spelled a surname according to the way it sounded to him, and
sometimes wrote it several different ways in the same document. How
are we to choose in such a case as that? And how can we be sure of
those instances where the deviation from modern usage is simplv
the work of a poor speller? Nevertheless, we give below some of the
more conspicuous divergencies:
Abercrombie — Abercromby
Benson — Benston
Bourland — Borland, Boreland
Byrnside — Burnside, Burnsideg
Carlile — Carlyle, Carlisle, Carolile
Clements — Clemons
Clendennin — Clendening
Daugherty — Doharty, Docharty
Dickenson — Dickerson
Feamster — Feemster, Fimster
Gay — Guy
Gillespie — Galaspy
Given — Givens
Graham — Grymes
Hughart — Hogarth
Kincaid — Kinkead
Knox — Nox
Lockridge — Loughridge
Mayse — Mays, Maze, Mais
McCay — McKay
McClintic — McClintock
McDannald — McDonel, McDonald
McFarland — McFarlin
Millroy — McElroy
Montgomery — McGummery
Moore — Moor
Muldrock — Mu Id rough
Rhea — Reah, Reagh
Wan! ess — Wand less
According to C. K. Bolton, the following Ulster immigrants came
from County Antrim: the Arbuckles, Campbells, Clarks, Crawfords,
Givens, Harpers, Jacksons, Jamesons, McCays; from Derry, the
Grahams, Lockridges, Pattons, Rheas; from Down, the Carliles,
Dunlaps, Mathewses, Steuarts; from Donegal, the Brattons, Hamil-
tons; from Londonderry, the Kincaids; from Tyrone, the Burnsides,
Knoxes, and Walkups.
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 187
Certain of the families who have migrated from this county include
names of considerable prominence. Thus James B. McCreary and
his kinsmen, Thomas C. McCreery of Kentucky, are descendents of
John McCreery, of the Cowpasture. Both these men have served in
the United States Senate, and the former has twice been governor of
his state. Dr. Charles McCreery, the first physician to remove the
collar-bone in a surgical operation, which was done in 1813, is also
of the same family. By way of North Carolina, we are told that
Zebulon B., Robert B., and Robert E. Vance of North Carolina, are
of the Vance family of Back Creek. All three served in Congress.
The first was also governor of North Carolina, and the second was a
brigadier general in the Confederate army. Meigs County, Tennessee,
is named for Return Jonathan Meigs, a descendant of the Clenden-
nins. C. C. O'Hara, an eminent geologist, appears to be a descend-
ant of the O'Hara who once lived on the Cowpasture. William
Bratton, one of the picked men of the Lewis and Clark expedition
of 1803, was a grandson of Robert Bratton, of the Calf pasture. A
monument stands over his grave in Indiana giving his services in that
famous expedition. Colonels Robert and John McFarland, early
pioneers of Jefferson County, Tennessee, are descendents of Duncan
McFarland, as was also William McFarland, a congressman from
The remainder of this chapter is devoted to paragraphic mention,
in alphabetic order, of a large number of the families which are more
or less associated with the history of this county. The list includes
names belonging to the Alleghany area and the Calfpasture. Names
belonging quite particularly to that portion of the old Bath which now
lies in Highland are discussed in the author's history of that county.
And as there is a History of Pocahontas, written by Reverend Mr.
Price, there is no attempt in this chapter to cover that part of the old
county that lies beyond the Alleghany Front.
The list does not assume to be exhaustive. In the case of Bath, as
in the case of all counties once a part of the American frontier, there
has all the while been coming and going. Names once prominent are
now virtually forgotten. Some other names that were once here, yet
never seem to have made more than a slight impress, are likewise all
but forgotten. Certain names, especially those occurring in our men-
tion of surveys and patents are given no place here, because our genea-
logic knowledge of them is too slight.
188 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
But some of the names still occurring in Bath would either appear,
or would have more space, if we had been given the necessary infor-
Some further explanation, bearing upon this chapter, will be found
in the preface to this book.
Robert Abercrombie was a man of enterprise and more than or-
dinary education. He took up several large surveys, and seems to
have lived several years on the stream named for him; Cromby's Run,
otherwise Molly Moore's Run, but now called Thompson's Creek.
He was one of the persons who followed Craighead to North Caro-
_^- James Anglin lived until about 1756 at the mouth of Benson's
Creek/which at first was called Anglin's Creek. Like so many other
settlers he became embarrassed by debt. The Indians may have had
something to do with his leaving, although he seems to have made a
new home beyond the Alleghany. We read of Isaac and other Anglins
in that quarter, and there is an Anglin's Run near the western line of
Greenbrier. Anglin's Ferry, now Philippi, was named for WilHam
Robert Armstrong, of Jackson's River, is mentioned by Doctor
Walker in 1750. Another Robert Armstrong was living at the same
time near Churchville, and so we cannot always tell which man is re-
ferred to in the records. There even seems to have been a third Rob-
ert. The one in Bath moved to Kentucky about 1793, but his son of
the same name lived here several years longer, and was often foreman
of the grand jury. He gave much attention to raising horses. Ar-
chibald Armstrong was a neighbor and probably kinsman, who finally
removed to Augusta. An Archibald who died here in 1800 had chil-
dren named Robert, Ann, Thomas, Isabella, William, and Jean. Ann
was the wife of James Elliot.
John Baxter came to Back Creek with the Vances and removed to
Pocahontas before 1800.
In 1755 the mother of James Beard made oath that her boy's ear
had been bitted off by a horse. In those days the human ear was liable
to get its owner into trouble. It was sometimes chewed off by ani-
mals, whether wild, or domestic, and also by the human animal in the
brutal rights of the time. And as slicing off the lobe of the ear was
X- d v-7/7 W 'Ke* G, Gefi*V*
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 189
then a mode of punishment, it was not desirable to be under sus-
picion as a convict. This James was probably a son of an older
James. It was doubtless the one or the other who purchased the
Crockett place on the Cowpasture in 1776. A James Beard had re-
moved to Tennessee by 1794.
George Benson, a maternal ancestor to the late Joseph Benson
Foraker, of Ohio, died near Williamsville about 1809. Several sons
of his brother Matthias, went to Monroe.
Alexander Black, the first owner of the Byrd farm near Wil-
liamsville, died in 1764, leaving sons named William and Alexander.
The latter and probably the former also, went to Kentucky with the
McCreerys and settled in the same county. The James Black who
owned Fassifern in 1794 seems of another family.
William Blanton, whose wife was Christina Gwin, lived a while
somewhere near Williamsville. He moved to the vicinity of Union
in Monroe County, where he was a prosperous and well known citi-
zen, as well as a member of the first Methodist congregation west of
John Bollar, whom tradition styles a fearless soldier, was a planter
on Jackson's River in 1762. His daughter Elizabeth, wedded a Lewis.
The John who married a granddaughter of William Wilson and
gave his name to Bolar Spring, was a son or grandson.
William Bonner, a veteran of the Revolution, was born in Penn-
sylvania, in 1759.
James Bourland came from Pennsylvania in 1752, and was mur-
dered nine years later. One Thomas Murray was committed for the
crime. Archibald seems to be a brother. His wife was Jean Jack-
son. James left a son named Andrew, and there were probably other
Robert Bratton was one of four brothers. Samuel remained in
Pennsylvania, James settled in Montgomery county, and the sons of
the fourth went to South Carolina. Robert married the widow of
Alexander Dunlap. His sons, James and Adam, remained here,
two sons going to Kentucky. Adam, who married Agnes, a sister to
William Given, settled on Jackson's River. James purchased in 1779
the farm and mill of James Rhea. Robert, son of Adam, married
Susannah Feamster, daughter, of William. Elizabeth, a daughter
of Robert Bratton, married Samuel Craig.
190 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
John Brown, born in Ireland in 1743, settled at Ebbing Spring.
He was a major in the Revolution and a justice of Bath for 33 years.
His adult children were Joseph, Margaret, John, and Rosanna.
Joseph and John Burns, brothers, settled in the Red Holes about
1792, Peter, a third brother, going to Tennessee. Joseph married
Kate Keiffer, and John married Margaret Monroe. John died in the
Red Holes in 1805. Of his seven children, Peter, who married Eli-
zabeth C. Monroe, in 1817, was the only son to leave posterity in
this county. The hamlet of Burnsville takes its name from this family.
James Burnside was a stepson to Archibald Clendennin, who
willed him 300 acres in the "New Found Land." Burnside lived
quite a while on the Bullpasture. He moved to Monroe, was burned
out by Indians in 1763, and returned for about six more years. He
died at Union in 1812. He was arbitrary and contentious, but an
energetic trader and land operator. He had a sister Rachel. His
descendants changed the spelling to Byrnside.
John Byrd, a brother-in-law to John and William Dean, was kill-
ed by Indians two years after his purchase on Jackson's River in 1754.
Of the wife and six children who were carried away, John, Jr., is
the only one we know to have returned. The family were trying to
escape to Fort Dinwiddie. The son became so Indianized that it was
quite a while before he could reconcile himself to the ways of his own
people. He was a favorite with the red men, and made at least one
attempt to go back to them. His wife was a Hamilton. There were
seven children, but Andrew H., whose wife was Elizabeth Capito,
was the only son to stay in Bath. He was twice its sheriff. A sister
two years older than John, Jr., remained with the Indians. Another
sister was Sarah, born in 1743. She does not seem to have been car-
ried away, and chose John Dean as guardian.
James Callison came from Albemarle about 1749.
Charles Edward Cameron, born precisely twenty years later than
Washington, was a soldier at Point Pleasant, where his only brother
was killed. General Lafayette, who esteemed him as a personal
friend, presented him with a gold-headed cane in 1781. He became
a colonel. About 1790 he settled at Fassifern, which he named after
his ancestral home in the Scottish Highlands. He died here in 1829.
His wife was Rachel P., daughter of Jacob Warwick. The only
son to grow to maturity was Andrew W., grandfather to Mrs. Tate
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 191
Sterrett. But Colonel Cameron reared Andrew Gatewood, and also
Charles L. Francisco, son of his half-sister, Mary, and afterward
county clerk. Colonel Cameron was of very estimable character.
James Carlile died on the Calfpasture about 1752, where he had
for several years been living on a farm of 578 acres. He told the
Lewises he did not want the land on account of the "barrens" in it,
but would complete the purchase if he could have the portion of the
survey east of the river. Otherwise he would leave, but asked pay-
ment for his improvements. These — on 400 acres — were sold to
William Hamilton for $87.50, against whom James, Jr., and the
widow, Elizabeth, brought suit for the $25 still due. Robert and
John Carlile, of the Bullpasture were undoubtedly other sons. The
late John G. Carlisle, of Kentucky, was a grandson of Robert.
Joseph Carpenter came from New York in 1746, and took a large
river-bottom survey a little below Covington. Tradition states that
a first visit was in the spring and that he started a crop of corn. On
his return in the fall, he found that a young buffalo had broken through
the fence and was trying to relieve the owner of the trouble of har-
vesting. The poacher was promptly converted into steak. Carpenter
came with a large family nearly grown, and he wished them to settle
around him. He seems to have been living in 1776. Close by was
another Carpenter family, that of a brother, the name of the pioneer
appearing to be Solomon. John and Joseph were sons of Joseph, Sr.,
and Thoiiias anc'. Jeremiah of Solomon. Two daughters of Joseph
Sr., married Jeremiah Seely and John Mann. Of a later generation
was Samuel, who died in 1842, leaving six chldren.
The Joseph Carpenter who came from England as an indentured
servant, and lived about seven years with Loftus Pullin, was not re-
lated to the other families. He settled in Little Valley about 1790,
and reared twelve children.
The father of John Cartmill came to the vicinity of Winchester
during the infancy of settlement, and a part of the family homestead
is still in the family, being owned by T. C. Cartmill, historian of the
lower Shenandoah Valley. John was one of eleven children. His
own sons were John, James, Samuel, and Thomas.
Jacob Cleek seems to have come from Rockbridge. He died in
1813, and his sons were David, Josiah, John, and Benjamin.
Jacob Clements died in 1759. His children were nine daughters.
192 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Archibald Clendennin lived on the John Walker survey, and was
buried there in 1749. He left half the farm to his son, John, then
about five years old, who later went to East Tennessee. The boy had
a sister, Margaret, and James Burnside was a half brother. Archi-
bald, Jr., a son by the first wife, moved to Greenbrier and was mur-
dered by Indians in 1763. His wife was a Ewing. Five of his six
children were also killed, but the wife escaped to the Cowpasture.
George and Charles seem to have been other sons. The latter gave
his name to the capital of West Virginia.
Hugh Coffey went to South Carolina about 1756.
John Cowardin, who married a Lewis, rented the Fort Lewis
plantation after the death of Colonel Charles Lewis.
Alexander Crawford, Sr., lost his life in one of the massacres on
Kerr's Creek. The son seems to have lived on the Cowpasture till
after the Revolution, when he returned to Rockbridge. There were
other Cravvfords in Bath.
Captain Robert Crockett came to America in 1740, and died in
Beverly Manor in 1746, leaving nine sons and a daughter. John and
Archibald inherited the Cowpasture land, but moved to Mecklenburg
Count}', North Carolina. John and James sold the Calfpasture prop-
erty. Samuel, who inherited the place on Jackson's River, was a ser-
geant at Fort Dickenson in 1763. Robert, Jr., was killed in Tenn-
essee, in 1769, where he was a member of a company of hunters.
Whether the celebrated Davy Crockett sprang from this family we
do not know. There were other Crocketts in Augusta in pioneer
William Daugherty was a blacksmith. The family was in Ken-
tucky in 1791.
Patrick Davis, who was living near Windy Cove in 1750, removed
William Dean was a minister on the Brandywine in
Pennsylvania. Shortly before his death, which took place in 1748,
he purchased land in the Borden grant and on Jackson's River. The
latter place fell to William, Jr., who sold it to his brother, John.
The latter, who was also a minister, and in 1794 sheriff of Bath, died
in 1811, aged about ninety. His daughters, Mary, Margaret, Alice,
Elizabeth, Nancy, Sarah, and Jean, married, respectively, William
BourlandAVilliam Crawford, John Kincaid, James Kincaid, James
FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 193
Anderson, James Venable, and Andrew McClung. There was also
a son William.
John Donally died before 1772, and his farm seems to have fallen
to John Clark, a son-in-law. Charles, who died on Stuart's Creek in
1733, was probably a brother. His children were Andrew, Charles
Ann, and Catharine. Captain Andrew Donally moved to Green-
brier about 1769, and his stockade withstood a heavy attack by the
Indians in 1778. A few years later he moved on to Kanawha Coun-
ty, of which he was one of the first justices.
Alexander Dunlap came from near Philadelphia and is said to
have been the first settler on Great River. He became a captain of
horse in 1743, but died the following year, leaving personality to the
then considerable value of $811.48. His house stood near the spot
now occupied by the Alleghany Inn at Goshen. His wife was Jean
McFarland, and his children were John, Alexander, and Elizabeth.
The first lived in Rockbridge. The other two went to Kentucky.
Goshen Pass was first known as Dunlap Pass, and Bratton's Run was
first Dunlap 's Run. It was another Dunlap who gave his name to
John Eddy moved to Botetourt before 1797.
Thomas Feamster, a wheelwright, came from Pennsylvania and
lived a while in Hampshire. In 1743 he was an appraiser of the es-
tate of Christopher Graham. He died in 1797 on the farm near Wil-
liamsville where he had been living about half a century. His person-
ality amounted to almost $4,400. A daughter hid his will and the es-
tate was not settled for fifteen years. The document was at length
found by a grandson, Thomas Sitlington, who burned it. The
daughters of Thomas Feamster were Martha, Rachael, Elizabeth,
Susanna, and Sarah, who married, respectively, John McCreery John
Carlile, Adam Bratton, Joseph Wallace, and Hugh Brown. The on-
ly daughter of Sarah Brown married Matthew Wallace. The sons
of Thomas Feamster were William and John, who moved away, the
first settling in Greenbrier before his father's death. William was
three times married. The second wife was a Black, the third was
Mary Fulton. The three daughters by the first wife married and
went to Indiana. The one son by the second was Thomas, who mar-
ried Polly McClung, 1796, and has descendants in Tennessee.
The sons by the third marriage are the ancestors of the Feamsters of
194 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Conrad Fudge, who died in Alleghany about 1849, married a
daughter of Jacob Persinger, by whom he had fourteen children. He
owned lands then worth $7,000, and left $1,000 to each of five sons.
David Frame was the oldest son of John Frame, who came from
Pennsylvania. The son purchased the Benjamin Lewis farm and lived
on it some years, but moved to Greenbrier" about 1797.
John Fulton was a pioneer of the Calfpasture. The Fulton
Spring on Mill Creek seems to be associated with James or with a
son. James died in 1753, leaving eight children.
James, Henry, John, Robert, and William Gay, whose names ap-
pear in the Pastures between 1745 and 1755, were brothers. Their
sister, Eleanor, married William Kinkead. James died in 1776, leav-
ing eight children. Several of the later Gays went to Kentucky.
Samuel Given purchased in Beverly Manor in 1738 and was one
of the early justices of Augusta. His son William seems identical
with the William Given of the Wilson settlement, who died in 1793,
leaving ten children.
Christopher Graham, who died in 1748, was probably the father
of John, who lived until 1771, and had eight children. One of these
was Jean, who married Andrew Lockridge. Robert inherited a half-
interest in his father's gristmill. Florence married her cousin, James
Graham, a pioneer on the Greenbrier. It may have been her brother
James, who was owning the Mitchell patent at his death in 1829.
That he owned silver tableware besides a bed and curtains inven-
toried at $45, indicates that he was comfortably situated.
Naphthalim Gregory was a soldier of the Indian war and must
have died at an early age. His widow, Mary, continued to occupy
the farm on Back Creek.
James Hall died about 1764, a date which suggests that he may
have been a victim of the Indian raid in 1763. His appraisers were
Thomas Feamster and George and John Lewis. His son Robert
was in North Carolina in 1737, but as he purchased one-half of a
Jackson survey five years later, he must have been one of the number
who preferred the Augusta highlands to the Southern lowlands.
We are in some doubt a. to who was the first Hamilton on Jack-
son's River and Back Creek, and there may have been more than a
single pioneer in that quarter. Tradition relates that the first Ham-
ilton family on Back Creek used for a while an Indian camping hut.
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 195
It is said that trees from which bark had been stripped to cover such
shelters continued to stand until a recent day. Charles, Osborn, and
Robert seem to be sons of this family. Major Andrew Hamilton
moved to Greenbrier, where he was a wealthy resident, owning much
property in lands and slaves. He had a brother William. Two
sisters married James McCay and William Mann, and a third mar-
ried a Bowen.
Hugh Hicklin, who lived some years on the Millroy patent, was
the oldest son of Thomas, of the Bullpasture, and he moved to Ken-
tucky about 1797. Sonora Hicklin, who married the late William M.
Boggs, of Napa, California, may have been a descendant. Mrs. Boggs
left the statement that her great-grandfather Hicklin was in Ken-
tucky before Daniel Boone.
Samuel Hodge died in 1773. His sons were John and James.
The latter was born 1747. His daughters, Sarah, Agnes, Margaret,
Catharine, and Elizabeth, married in order, a McDonald, a Martin,
a Mcllvaine, a Kelly, and a McCutchen. Another daugrter was
John Henry Insminger, a blacksmith, lived a while on the Cow-
pasture and then went to Monroe, where he remained.
Captain William Jameson died about 1753. To John, his oldest
son, he left his land on Jackson's River and his best suit of "close."
Other sons were George, Andrew, and William, of whom the last
named had the Calfpasture homestead. John left Augusta.
James Kelso was a servant in 1759. He married a daughter of
John Sitlington, lived nearly opposite Laverty, and was a prominent
William Keyser purchased land on the west side of Warm
Springs Mountain in 1797.
Even in the infancy of Augusta the Kincaids were many. The
John who bought land on the Calfpasture lived at New London, in
Pennsylvania, and at once conveyed the place to David Kincaid, of
James Knox, who died in 1772, lived a mile northeast of Wil-
liamsville. His children were James, John, Robert, Jean, Abigail,
Elizabeth, and Mary. The wife's name was Jean. It is stated on
very good authority that James, Jr., an officer in Washington's army,
was the man who gave his name to Knoxville, Tennessee, and not
196 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
General Henry Knox, as is the usual claim. Jane, the mother of
President Polk, was a daughter of one James Knox. That the latter
was a kinsman is very probable.
The LaRue family is derived from Isaac, who settled near Win-
chester in 1738. Abraham, a son, moved to Augusta County.
Ralph Laverty died in 1792 at the mouth of Stuart's Creek,
where he had lived near half a century. He was a person of some
means and prestige, and until the Revolution his name often occurs
in the Augusta records. But he operated a still, and on one occasion
he was fined for being too drunk to give testimony. His second wife,
whom he married in 1764, was Jean, widow of Robert Graham.
His sons, William and Steele, settled on New River at the mouth
of Indian Creek. The latter was killed by Indians. The former,
who died a natural death in 1818, was the parent of fourteen chil-
dren. The daughters of Ralph were Elizabeth, Agnes, Sarah, and
Martha. To the first, who married James Hamilton, of Rock-
bridge, he left his homestead. The otrers married, in order, a Had-
don, a Clark, and a Meek. In 1800, a slave named Chainey, be-
longing to the widow Laverty, murdered her own child. The people
of Bath were not willing to see the woman hanged, and she was sent
out of the county.
Captain John Lewis, of Warm Springs, was a son of Thomas and
a nephew of Charles. He commanded a company at Point Pleasant,
and was also an officer under Washington. He died in 1788, leaving
four children, Thomas L., Elizabeth S., Charles A., and John B.
George Lewis was unrelated to the other connection. He came
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He seems to have been il-
literate. His sons, John and Benjamin, between whom he divided his
homestead, went to Greenbrier. Yet the father may have been the
George Lewis who was exempted from head-tax in 1785 because of
James Lockridge seems to have come to the Calfpasture in 1753.
He sold his purchase to his son Andrew and went to North Carolina.
Andrew built a mill soon after his arrival, but in 1774 he removed
to a large purchase north of Burnsville and died there in 1791.
James and Lancelot were his brothers, and there was probably also a
Robert. His own sons were John, Andrew, James, William, and
Robert. Rev. Andrew Y. Lockridge, a Presbyterian missionary to the
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 197
Cherokee Indians, is a descendant. Sarah, a daughter of the first
James, married John Gay, son of James, and went to Kentucky. The
celebrated Colonel Lockridge, of Texas, killed in Walker's filibus-
tering expedition to Nicaraugue, is believed to have been another de-
Humphrey Madison was a deputy sheriff in 1753 and was killed
by Indians three years later. He must have lived on the Cow-
pasture, as his estate was appraised by four men of the Dickenson set-
Michael Mallow seems to be identical with the Michael whose fa-
ther of the same name settled near Upper Tract in Pendleton County.
The son was born about 1755 and carried off by Indians in childhood,
but was restored. He was identified by a scar on the thumb. Mi-
chael, of Alleghany, died in 1830, leaving seven children.
Moses Mann, an early settler in Beverly Manor, died about
1758, and seems to be the father of John, William, and Thomas, of
whom the first was the administrator. The brothers William and
Thomas settled on Jackson's River. William died about 1778.
His first habitation was a saltpeter cave, in which a son was born.
His children were Moses, Thomas, William, John, Jenny, and Sa-
rah. The sons were given land in Bath and Monroe. Thomas,
brother of William Sr., traded with the Indians and lived until 1794.
Thomas Massie came from Frederick County.
James Mayse, a cooper, was the first, pioneer in Bath to hold a
civil office. He was killed by Indians, leaving personalty worth
about $150. His sons were William, Joseph, anad Richard. The
third, whose administrator was William Douglas, died in 1809.
Joseph Mayse, of the Fort Lewis settlement, may have been a brother,
yet we are not certain that there was an entire identity of surname.
His son Joseph died in 1840 at the age of eighty-four. His brief cap-
tivity among the Indians is elsewhere mentioned. A severe wound
in the battle of Point Pleasant induced his mother to ride there on
horse-back with only a negro attendant. She nursed him back to
recovery, yet at a much later time amputation of the injured leg be-
came necessary. He had a brother Isaac.
James McAvoy was kidnapped from Ireland when a youth and
sold to Robert Carlile.
Thomas and John McAllister, of Ugly Creek, died about
198 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
the same time — 1829. The sons of the former were William and
Reese; of the latter, James and Samuel.
JamesMcCay moved to Greenbrier.
John McClung, Jr., came from Rockbridge to Thompson's Creek
in 1751, when only eighteen years old. His wife was Sarah Mc-
Cutchen, and his sons were Robert, John, and William.
William McClintic purchased a part of the Bourland place in
1774, and lived there till his death in 1801. His sons were Alexan-
der, William, Joseph, and Robert. Two daughters married Mil-
hollens. A brother to William was so desperately wounded at Guil-
ford that he only partially recovered. In 1786 the court of Botetourt
recommended him for a pension. He died soon afterward, leaving a
John McCreery, a carpenter, was a settler of some means and
enterprise. He died on his homestead in 1768, after dividing it be-
tween his sons John) and Robert, both of whom were prominent in
both civil and military life in this county before moving to Kentucky.
The pioneer McCreery had also several daughters. Elizabeth mar-
ried Colonel George Wilson in 1750. Wilson is mentioned in anoth-
er paragraph. Jane married Major Andrew Donally, a pioneer of
Greenbrier and Kanawha, and whose fort near Lewisburg was the
scene of a battle with the Indians in 1778. Nancy — named for her
mother, Nancy Crawford, of Dublin, Ireland — married James Hus-
ton, who went to Kentucky in 1783 and died at his home near Cov-
ington in 1818, at the age of ninety-five. The wife of John Mc-
Creery, Jr., was a daughter of Wallace Estill.
The children of John McDannald, who seems to have been a
physician, were Samuel, John, Elizabeth, James, Mary, Rebecca, and
William. Samuel was living on Mill Creek in 1790. John went
to Ohio and James to Kentucky. Elizabeth was several years a cap-
tive among the Indians. As the widow of Robert Sitlington she
gave $1,000 to Windy Cove church.
Duncan McFarland seems to have come from Lunenburg Coun-
ty. Alexander and 1 William were soas. The first was a soldier of
the Revolution. He sold to Jacob Cleck and went to North Caro-
lina. The other absconded about 1775, leaving his father-in-law
to rare for the wife and her seven children.
Robert McGuffin came from Rockingham and purchased land
below Falling Spring in 1795.
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 199
Alexander Millroy seems to have moved to Rockbridge about
John Mitchell was living in North Carolina in 1766. But a
John who may have been the same died in Augusta in 1771. His
children were Thomas, Robert, John, James, Eleanor, Mary, and
Elizabeth. One John Mitchell died a natural death in 1783 at Da-
vid Frame's stillhouse; according to the verdict of the coroner's jury.
John Moore, who settled near 1 the mouth of Thompson's Creek,
was a victim of the Indians. According to tradition, his widow
Molly accepted a brave as her second husband, and her son, Joseph,
fought on the side of the red men, thereby arousing great indigna-
tion among the white people who had known him in boyhood. This
legend may be confused as to names and details. Moore is not one
of the rare names and it was not rare in pioneer Augusta. At all
events the Moore name was not blotted out in Bath, and a Joseph
Moore was living in this county in 1797.
Richard Morris died on Jackson's River in 1805. His nine chil-
dren seem mostly to have gone to Ohio. Isabella and Frances mar-
ried, respectively, William Elliot and Archibald Armstrong.
Andrew Muldrock died in 1758 or 1759, leaving a will which
was not put on record. The widow, Jean, seems to have moved to
the mouth of the Cowpasture.
Anthony Mustoe came to Warm Springs Valley about 1790.
He was associated with William Chambers in some land operations.
In 1762 Michael O'Hara was a ward of Alexander Millroy.
John Oliver, a large landholder and a prominent citizen, died in
1791, leaving a son of the same name.
Jacob Persinger was one of the earliest pioneers of Potts Creek
and had a numerous posterity. His son Jacob died in 1841, leaving
eleven children. To his brother Henry, who preceded him seventeen
years, there were born ten.
Adam Porter settled on Porter's Mill Creek shortly after the
Revolution, and built a gristmill. Three son were Robert, Reese,
John Putnam was born in Massachusetts in 1764, and came to
Stuart's Creek at the age of thirty. As Jeptha Putnam he was a fif-
er in the Revolution when a boy of thirteen.
Michael Rainey moved from the upper Cowpasture to Indian
200 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Creek and ended his days there. He seems to have had no children.
John Ramsey, who married the widow of Robert Gay, purchased
the Coffey place.
William Renick owned the Benson farm for seven years before
moving to Greenbrier, and may have lived on it.
William Rhea died on Mill Creek in 1801, after having lived
there at least thirty years. His sons were William and John. To a
grandson he left a copy of "Whitefield's Sermons."
James and William Scott apear to be brothers. The latter died
in 1751, and the widow married Joseph Carpenter, the guardian of his
children. Elizabeth Scott, who died in 1841, was an aged widow who
left $200 to the Presbyterian church at Covington.
Andrew Sitlington, who came to America before 1760, and to the
Cowpasture soon after 1766, lived chiefly on the Craighead farm till
his death in 1804 . Tjo relatives and friends he left sums amounting
to $3,000. Like his brother Robert he had no children. A third Sit-
lington was John, who lived at the mouth of Stuart's Creek. Wil-
liam and James were his sons. The latter was killed in the battle of
Falling Spring, though not, it is said, until he had slain two of the
foe. His scalp, identified by its yellow hair, was recovered. William,
who died in 1772, has many descendants, although the surname has for
several decades been extinct both in Bath and Highland. The Sit-
lingtons were people of much thrift and prominence.
James Sloan, a neighbor, to the McClungs, married a daughter of
James Stuart gave his name to the stream first known as Stuart's
Mill Creek. He was probably a brother-in-law to Ralph Laverty,
and was killed by Indians in 1757. James, Ralph, and John were
then minor children. James and Ralph went to Tygart's Valley,
where the former died in 1777, probably while in militia service.
Robert, who was living on the patent in 1789 and keeping a store,
was probably the oldest son.
Van and Leonard Swearingen, living on Mill Creek in 1790,
seem to be descendants of the Van who was living in Berkeley Coun-
ty in 1 738.
Thomas Thompson came from Delaware about 1749, and set-
tled on the stream which now bears his name. He was guardian of
James Stuart, Jr. He died about 1760, perhaps another victim of
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 201
the red man. Edward, the administrator, seems to be a brother.
There were a William and a younger Thomas. Robert, a soldier at
Point Pleasant, was born in 1758. Joseph, living in 1781 on the
Botetourt section of Jackson's River, was probably of a distinct fam-
The surname Usher calls up a romance, of which our knowledge
is all too fragmentary. One Edward Usher wedded the only daugh-
ter and sole heir of a member of the English aristocracy. After a
few years she was left a widow and sought a reconciliation with
her father. She was walking toward his mansion, leading her chil-
dren, when he drove by. The parent merely tossed her a coin with *
the remark that that was all the brats should have of his property.
In some unknown manner, the three daughters came to the Dicken-
son settlement. In 1745, James Knox, as guardian of Ann Jenny
Usher, executed the first fiduciary bond on record in Augusta Coun-
ty. She married Loftus Pullin, of the Bullpasture. Martha married
Colonel John Dickenson, and Margaret married William Steuart of
the upper Cowpasture. Steuart, an educated Scotchman, came to
America when about twenty years old, but the ship he took passage
with was captured by pirates and he was set ashore with nothing at
all but a piece of canvas. All three had families. There was al-
most certainly a brother, who must have emigrated from this region.
The aristocratic grandparent finally relented and sent an agent to
America, but the sisters did not know of it till afterward, and do not
seem to have been much interested in the matter.
Samuel Vance came to Mountain Grove by 1765, and lived there
till his death in 1807. His children were James, Benjamin, Ally,
Allen, Patsy, Nancy, Sarah, and Elizabeth. John would appear to
be a brother to Samuel.
James Waddell bargained for his survey on the Cowpasture in
1743. He fell into debt to a number of people and betook himself
to Pennsylvania in 1747. Robert Bratton attached a mare. Laverty
was his security to John Scott on a note of $21.86. Scott brought
suit, and Laverty petitioned that he might be allowed to patent Wad-
dell's survey, the face of the note and the purchase price of the land
being nearly the same. This was granted, and a valuation of the
improvements was made by McCay, Cartmill, Stuart, and Adam
202 ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Thomas Wallace came from Deleware in 1781, purchased the
upper half of the McCreery homestead, and died on it in 1799. His
children were Matthew, David, Josiah, John, Benjamin, Joseph,
Thomas, Polly, and Nancy. Matthew, born in 1772, is the ancestor
of the Wallaces of Bath. General W. H. L. Wallace, killed in the
Battle of Shiloh in 1862, sprang from another branch.
James Ward, born about 1727, lived some years at Warm
Springs where he kept a tavern. He was a lieutenant, and was a
brother-in-law to Sampson Mathews and Matthew Arbuckle. He
removed to Anthony's Creek in 1769. John Ward, excused from
poll tax in 1768, seems to have been his father and to have lived with
him at Warm Springs. Colonel William Ward, the oldest of the
seven children of James, was taken by Indians near Fort Dinwiddie,
but was restored. He was ai justice of Greenbrier and otherwise a
leading man there. He finally removed to Ohio, where he founded
the city of Urbana in 1805. Captain James Ward, the second son,
was killed at Point Pleasant.
William Warwick came from Williamsburg and married Eliza-
beth Dunlap. His sons were Charles and John. The latter was a
scout in the Indian war and went to Kentucky in 1789. Captain
Jacob Warrick, a son, was killed at Tippecanoe, and Warrick Coun-
ty, in Indiana, is named for him. General Harrison complimented
his company by saying he had never seen a finer body of men. Major
Jacob Warwick owned for a while the Fort Dinwiddie farm. He
moved to Pocahontas about 1800. Three sons-in-law were Charles
E. Cameron, Sampson Mathews, and William Gatewood.
Joseph Watson died in the spring of 1747, and the widow mar-
ried John McCapen. In the inventory of Watson's effects is the
first mention in Augusta of knives and forks, their value being fifty-
Elisha Williams came from Frederick County. Hazel Wil-
liams, whose wife was Rachel Cauley, was a miller on Lick Run in
William Wilson, of Bolar Run, came from Brandywine Creek in
Pennsylvania about 1749. Stephen Wilson was a neighbor and kins-
George Wilson seems to have been a man of much energy and
influence and to have had some enemies. He acquired several widely-
THE FAMILIES OF GREATER BATH 203
separated surveys, but appears to have lived at Green Valley. Dur-
ing the Indian war he commanded a company of militia. About 1763
he removed to the west of Pennsylvania and settled near where he
had campaigned in the Braddock war. After the Revolution began
he was lieutenant colonel of the Eighth Pennsylvania, but died in that
service in 1777.
Archibald Withrow was born in 1773 and died at the age of sev-
Peter Wright settled on the site of Covington and had a grist-
mill. Fort Young was built on his homestead. He died about 1758,
and his son of the same name was his executor.
Page 7, line 14: Read were, not are.
Page 16, line 25: Read Alexander not William.
Page 35, line 1 : Read purchases, not purchasers.
Page 40, line 27: Read Thomas C. McCreary, not McCreery.
Page 41, line 5: According to very recent information, these
McFarlands were not discended from Duncan.
Page 72, line 1 : Read $7.84, not $5.00.
Page 92, line 32: Omit the
Page 93, line 10: Read $50, not $30.
Page 100, line 18: Read "Deficalty," not "Deficasy."
Page 102, line 36: Read principles, not principals.
Page 1-95, line 7: Read John Byrd, Jr., not Boiven.
A few other errors are quite slight and therefore are not men-
NOTE: The topics beginning on pages 27, 36, 106, 111, 128,
153, 168, and 170, contain numerous proper names arranged with
one exception in alphabetic order. These names are not repeated
in the present index.
Abercrombie, Robert 188
Act of Assembly, 1790 107
Alleghany, Naming of 176
Alleghany, Formation of 176
Alleghany, Physical Geogra-
Alleghany, Statistical 177
Alleghany, Industrial 177
Alleghany, Scenic Features ..178
Alleghany, Organization of... 180
Alleghany in War of 1861 182
Alleghany, Justices, 1823-1852.180
Alleghany, Early History of
181, 182, 184
Anglin, James 188
Animals and Plants 6
Armstrong, Robert 188
Augusta County IS
Augusta in 1783 78
Bailey, Ann 99
Bath Alum 49
Bath, Form and Size 1
Bath, Boundaries 1
Bath, Organization of 108
Bath, Curtailments 134
Bath, Magisterial Districts ...138
Bath, Valuation, 1860 138
Bath, Progress, 1790-1860 139
Bath, Squadron 146
Bath, Modern 172
Bath, Tourists 172
Bath, Statistical 174
Bath, Pioneer Families 186
Bath, Soldiers in Revolution
Bath, Officers in Revolution
95, 96, 97
Bath-Pendleton line, 1793 134
Baxter, John 188
Beard, James 188 '
Benson, George 189
Black, Alexander 189
Blanton, William 1 89
Blowing Cave 9
Bolar Spring 45
Bollar, John 189
Bonner, William 189
Botetourt County, Formation of 54
Bourland, James 189
Bratton, Robert 41, 189
Brown, John 190
Burns Family 190
Burnside, James 190
Byrd, John 190
Calfpasture, Position of 167
Calfpasture, Early Officials. . .167
Calfpasture, Lewis and Patton
Calfpasture, Pioneer Settlers
Calfpasture, Emigrants from.. 169
Callison, James 190
Cameron, Charles E 190
Carlile, James 191
Carpenter, Families 191
Cartmill, John 191
Chesapeake & Ohio R. R 179
Church Buildings, 1860 138
Cleek, Jacob 191
Clements, Jacob 191
AXNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Clendennin, Archibald ...40, 192
Clifton Forge 180
Coffey, Hugh ....192
Confederate Soldiers, Roster of 152
County Government, Colonial. 52
Covington 179, 181
Covvardin, John 192
Craighead, Alexander 67
Crawford, Alexander 192
Crockett, Robert 192
Daugherty, William 192
Davis, Patrick 192
Dean, William 192
Dickenson, Adam and John... 38
Donally Family 193
Dunlap, Alexander 193
Ebbing Spring 9
Eddy, John 193
Feamster, Thomas 193
Flag Rock, View From 8
Fort Lewis Settlement 19
Frame, Daniel 194
Frenqh and Indian War 79
Fort Dinwiddie 96
Fudge, Conrad 194
Fulton, John 194
Given, William 194
Gregory, Naphthalim 194
Graham, James 194
Hall, James 194
Hamilton Family 194
Healing Springs 45, 49
Hicklin, Hugh 195
Hodge, Samuel 195
Hot Springs 44
Hot Springs, Town of 47
Hot Springs, Walker's Visit to
Immigrants, Ulster Homes of .40
Incidents, 1790-1860 135, 139
Indian Names 14
Indian Legend 45
Indian Raids, 1756-59 82
Indian Raid, 1763 84, 85
Indians, Relations with 79
Indians, Defense against 80
Jackson Family 39
James River and Kanawha Ca-
Jameson, William 195
Justices, 1791-1823 136
Kelso, James 195
Keyser, William 195
Kincaid Family 195
Knox, James 195
LaRue Family 196
Laverty, Ralph 196
Law and Order 69
Legal Documents 71
Letter by Andrew Lewis 86
Letter by Andrew Sittlington . 87
Letter by Charles Lewis 88
Letter by John Dickenson ....100
Letter by W. Chambers 138
Letter by Robert Bratton 142
Lewis Family 196
Lewis, John 14, 15
Lewis, Charles 92
Lewis Land Grant 15, 23
Licpjor, Petition against 140
Lockridge, Andrew 196
Madison, Humphrey 197
Mallow, Michael 197
Mann Family 197
Mann's Fort, attack upon ... 84
Marriage Bonds, list of 128
Marriage Formalities 127
Massie, Thomas 197
Mathews, Sampson and Geo. .162
Mayse Family 197
Mayse, Captivity of Joseph... 85
McAvoy, James 197
McCallister Family 197'
McCay, James 198
McCIung, John 198
McCIintic Family 198
McCrary, John 40, 198
McDonnald, John 198
McFarland, Duncan 198
McGuffin, Robert 198
Meadow Lake 9
Millboro Springs 49
Militia System 69
Millroy, Alexander 199
Mineral Waters, Nature of... 42
Mineral Springs of Cowpasture 49
Mitchell, John 199
Money in Colonial Times ... 71
Moore, John 199
Moravian Missionaries 76
Morris, Richard 199
Mountain Ranges 2
Mountain Passes 3
Muldrock, Andrew 199
Muster Roll, Wilson's Company 86
Mustoe, Anthony 199
O'Hara, Michael 40, 199
Oliver, John 199
Paths, aboriginal 56
Pennsylvania Road 62
Pensioners of Revolution .... 98
Persinger Family 184, 199
Petition of 1727 18
Petition of 1779, Signers of... 106
Petitions of 1779-1788 104
Pioneer Settlement Areas .... 36
Pioneer Conditions 62
Pioneer Houses 66
Pioneer Costume 63
Pioneer Taverns 51
Pioneer Occupations 66
Pioneer Stores 52
Pioneer Farming 66
Pioneer Mills 52
Pioneer Prices 73
Pioneer Postal Service 76
Pioneer Forts 81
Pioneer Schools , 69, 170
Point Pleasant Expedition ... 89
Point Pleasant, Battle^of 90
Pontiac War 83, 85
Population Figures 135, 174
Porter, Adam 199
Powder Mills 75
Prices, 1781 97
Public Land, Methods of Ob-
taining 22, 23
Putnam, John 199
Rainey, Michael 199
Ramsey, John 200
Rangers, Dickenson's 86
Renick, William 200
Revolution, Three Stages of
Revolution, Local Events .... 96
Revolution, Bath Soldiers in . 94
Rhea, William 200
Rivers of the Pastures 13
Roads, Pioneer 56
Road Overseers, 1748-88 ... 60
Rocky Springs Church 170
Rubino Spring 45
Schools, Petition on 140
Scotch-Irish Settlers 11
Scott Family 200
Selim, the Algerine 101
Sheriffs, 1823-61 137
Sittlington Family 200
Sloan, James 200
Society, Grades of 64
Society, State of 67, 69, 76
ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY
Spottsylvania County IS
Spottswood's Expedition 10
Stranger, A Mysterious 141
Stuart, James 200
Suit, Mayse vs. Lewis 26
Surnames, 1782-3 Ill j
Surnames, 1791 118
Surnames, 1913 122
Surveys and Patents, Lists of . 27
Terrill Brothers 143
Trompson, Thomas 200
Usher, Edward 201
Vance Family 40, 201
Vanstavern Story 184
Waddell, James 201
Wallace, Thomas 202
War of 1861, local incidents of
War of 1861, War Justices ..143
War of 1861, Local Document-
ary History 144, 182
War of 1861, Jones' Raid ...149
Ward, James 202
Warm Springs 44, 49
Warm Springs, Town of .... 48
Warm Springs Valley, Settle-
ment of 46
Warm Springs, Description of 50
Warm Springs, Strother's Eu-
Warwick, William 202
Watson, Joseph 202
Whiskey War 133
Williams, Elisha 202
Wilson, William 202
Wilson, George 202
Windy Cave Church 67
Withrow, Archibald 203
Wright, Peter 203
f/',AR 1 2 1952